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Girls From Argentina

Written by Ralph. Posted in Foreign Girls for Marriage

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girls from argentina

Argentine Tango Lesson

Argentine Tango Lesson: An Argentine Tango Lesson Puts You To Dance!

It turns out the Argentine tango is the easiest amongst ballroom dances to grasp and dance well from the start. Its main beat is the slow-slow, that is a stride, and its primary step is the walk itself.

I got to my initial Argentine tango lesson praying not to make a fool out of myself and wishing I would not hurt the instructor. My only comfort was to see like concern on my fellow dancers’ faces.

The instructor, trying to calm us down, began by saying: “Ladies and gentlemen, stop sweating, tango is simple”. She went on: “You have come for your initial Argentine tango lesson and I want to learn what you think of the tango”. A young girl replied, saying she thought tango was chic, and a great way to reveal yourself. The instructor concurred, but still clarified that it depended on the leader and in our ability to move.

Addressing the gentlemen in the room, she said that the leader, supported by the partner, has to infer the music, if not, both would be walking like soldiers. “Relax sirs”, she told them, tango music is ennobling and communicative, and easy to comprehend.

As we had signed up, she speculated we all held some classy moves. The tango demands smooth, flowing, kind of feline-like walk, however, it is on the leader to lead the way into a bittersweet, bright, serious or even sensual style. Also, we discovered, it possesses tons of ornamentation, and our level of ease with the music and dance partner would let us do more or less with these.

As I observed the class, everybody exhibiting a blend of joy, anxiety and embarrassment, I could nothing but think that I was truly excited about this famed Argentine tango lesson I had thought about for almost a year.

I was able to perceive it is a dance that allows you freedom to get proficient while you still enjoy dancing it in a plain fashion until you are capable of mastering the challenging moves, and as long as you have a good partner, you are certain to accomplish it.

All of a sudden, the sublime music began. The instructor stated that the aim of this initial Argentine tango lesson was to immerse us in the tango world, not so much on the dance. Quite valid! Once we began to grasp the workings and value, it was decipherable what we were supposed to do as we danced.

As we heard the blessed Gardel, she expressed every dance possesses its singular music, thus, every composition has to be felt intensely. Using her foot, she tapped on the floor the regular one- two- three- four series that conformed the music’s principal beats and proceeded to walk around the room to this rhythm. Call me crazy, but I joined her, and so did others. I was simply pacing, but I was dancing. It was wonderful!

At first, when I said that I was interested in taking an Argentine tango lesson, my acquaintances joked about it. Today they see me walking back and forth, spin with class and precision, embrace with tons of emotion, smile and have so much fun and they are breathless… and covetous.

Marriage Advice:

For girls only: Which are the cutest soccer players from la Copa America?

I lovee 1)Rafa Marquez of course..But for some reason i think 2)Cambiasso from Argentina is soo cute, almost adoreable..What do you guys think about that?

I think he’s cute because when I saw the World Cup last year he was tearing or crying, because Argentina was defeated..I thought that was too cute..

Note: they’re note in a certain order, is just random..and I bet there’s more cute players just cant remember their name

I use to have such a crush on Cambiasso but he shaved his hair! :(

So far I like Mascherano, Omar Bravo, Diego Lugano, Roque Santa Cruz, Nery Castillo, and Nelson Cuevas.

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Hot Latina Women

Written by Ralph. Posted in Foreign Girls for Marriage

hot Latina women
hot Latina women

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Hot Latina Women Hottie Girl Dancing At Home

100 years ago LAPD women led way
The women of the force were once paid less that their peers and limited in the duties that they could perform.

Hot Hispanic Women

Written by Ralph. Posted in Foreign Girls for Marriage

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Beliefs and Practices in Women Health

Beliefs and Practices in Women Health

• Ramaiah Bheenaveni *

Rural women’s health is an infinitely broad topic. Many Indian women have come from circumstances in which women have limited access to healthcare. Traditionally, there has been discrimination towards women in decision-making; access to resources such as food, education and health care; job opportunities; and in child-rearing and parenting. However, women’s health in rural areas affects everything in their environment from their families to their economies and vice versa. A woman’s health, especially among the poor and illiterate, is often neglected not just by her family but by the woman herself. She is taught not to complain and if she does then she is directed either to use condiments in the kitchen or try faith healing.

Man is unique in that he has a distinct cultural environment of his own. This includes all the conditions in which men are born, brought up, live, work, procreate and perish. Culture as an environment is deeply related to the health of humans. It includes patterns of social organizations designed to regulate a particular society; one can understand the behaviour of people belonging to various sections and predict how an individual of a particular section will react in a given situation. With our knowledge of health, the treatment of diseases among ignorant peoples appears to be strange since they frequently follow practices of praying, wearing of amulets or consulting an exorcist who recites certain verbal formula. Hence, we can say that beliefs and cultural practices are predominately playing significant roles in the human health more peculiarly in the health of women.

Many rural people did not know about the services set up for them at sub-centres and PHC by the government because they did not see any evidence of these services being provided for them. As a part of the awareness programmes, the health workers (ANM) have been organizing to several exposure trips at the villages. It was there that the women were informed about the specifics of various services supposed to be made available to them. This encouraged some of them to ask questions and report on the situation in their PHC. They explained that though a nurse did visit their village it was not a daily visit, nor did she go beyond a certain point in the village, and certainly did not take a round of the village. They made a show of doing their duty by providing nominal services.

A variety of factors, including an older population, a limited supply of health care providers, and further distances from health care resources may contribute to special health concerns for people in non-metropolitan areas. Access to health care and social services are critical issues for rural women.

Belief is the psychological state in which an individual is convinced of the truth of a proposition. Like the related concepts truth, knowledge, and wisdom, there is no precise definition of belief on which scholars agree, but rather numerous theories and continued debate about the nature of belief 1.

The cultural phenomenon of social organization, according to Giger and Davidhizar (2004), includes groups in the social environment that influence cultural development and identification. The family, an important aspect of the social organization phenomenon, strongly influences cultural behavior through a process of socialization or enculturation of children and group members (Giger & Davidhizar; Niska, 1999). These learned cultural behaviors guide individuals through life situations, events and health practices. Understanding family from a cultural perspective is a significant element in providing nursing care to Mexican-Americans since Giger and Davidhizar identify the family as being most values in this culture.

Environmental control is defined by Giger and Davidhizar (2004) as the ability of persons within a particular cultural heritage to plan activities that control their environment as well as their perception of one’s ability to direct factors in the environment. Kuipers’ (1999) discussion of this model, in relation to Mexican-American culture, emphasized the construct of environmental control with a focus on locus-of-control, health beliefs, and folk medicine. Locus-of-control explains the way in which individuals, within their cultural environment, perceive their ability to control what happens to them and to their health. Health may be viewed as being dependent on outside forces or their own actions (Bundek et al., 1993). Beliefs about health and illness, which are components of environmental control, affect health practices, use of health resources, and a person’s response to experiences of both health and illness (Giger & Davidhizer, 2004; Northam, 1996). A third component of environmental control, folk medicine, includes alternative therapies such as using herbs and teas or visiting a cultural folk healer.


1. Exploration of women beliefs on health, risk and their relationship to lifestyles;

2. Elicitation of their views across a range of health-related behaviours and practices, especially puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and child rearing, and assessment of the potential for the positive promotion of women health in these and other areas of her sexual health.

3. Identification of the sources of information and influences on the development of health beliefs amongst women, particularly with respect to common elements in attitudes to risk-taking across a number of health beliefs and practices.

4. To focus on what women themselves know and want to know, including the salience of health, and the relevance of health-related knowledge in their lives


1. There is a positive relationship between social beliefs and cultural practices of a given society

2. Positive relationship may be observed among the social beliefs and cultural practices and various other factors such as caste, religion, social and traditional customs in society

3. The explanation for the persistence of belief systems is that people remain committed to them, but for this commitment to last long, the belief system must be validated

Research Design:

A quantitative and qualitative study, building on our previous work in this area, concerning the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of female children and young women to health, risk and lifestyles. A guiding methodological principle underpinning the study was the development of a sensitive research design for rather than on women: a study grounded not simply in what women know or need to know, but also in what they want to know and feel to be important in the context of their everyday lives. The methods enabling these principles to be taken forward are described below.

a) Area of the Study:

The Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh consists of ten districts namely Hyderabad, Ranagareddy, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Nalgonda, and Khammam. From this region, the village Ramchandrapur in Koheda Mandal of Karimnagar district has been randomly selected as an area of the study.

b) Universe & Sampling:

According to 2001 census, the village Ramchandrapur has an approximate population of 1840 who from nearly 550 families. This village has a primary health centre (PHC), but lacks a major hospital within a range of 35 kms. And this village has been selected as universe for this study.

So for this study, the researcher adopted stratified-proportionate random method of sampling based on caste composition of the villagers and selected the respondents from the families mentioned in the habitation list of Ramchandrapur. This village population data was collected from Supraja Seva Samithi, a voluntary organization, which is working in the region for the last 10 years in the fields of health, education and environmental protection. The list consists of various caste grouping and from which proportionate stratified samples were selected. Then a list of about 181 respondents was prepared for data collection. Therefore, it is obvious that an attempt has been made to present a general picture of community data and on the basis of which, views and attitudes of the respondents were taken into consideration.

C) Tools of Data Collection:

As the research is qualitative and quantitative, non-participant observation and interview schedule was adopted for the collection of primary data. The aspects that will cover in the interview schedule were defined under two parts, one is for socio-economic and cultural status of respondents such as name, sex, age, social status, education, religion, income, nature and type of the house, etc. and the other for socio-cultural beliefs and practice patterns in health and the related treatment of the villagers.

D) Analysis and interpretation of data:

After arranging the collected data through tabulation and classification, they were analyzed and interpreted in the socio-cultural context so as to give a scientific basis to the study. Although statistical methods like frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, t-test, chi-squire and ANOVA have been used in the study, they were applied in a relevant way.


Socio-Economic Profile:

During the field work, observed that 22 castes were appeared and most of the respondent belongs to the BC castes like Yadava, Gouda, Munnuru Kapu, Vishwa Brahmin, Mudiraj and a insignificant number of people belongs to services caste like Mangali, Chakali, Mera and so on. A considerable amount of people belongs to SC community i.e. Mala and Madigas. Only a few respondents belong to ST (Erukala) community. Out of the 181 respondents, 55 percent are male and 45 percent female,. This research is carried out with almost all the equal four fold age groups of respondents. Thus, it is noted that age group is scattered in this study. More number of respondents i.e. 91% belongs to Hindu religion and 5% are Muslim. Nearly 4% of the respondents belong to Christianity. It is also proved that common phenomena of religion composition in India.

In this village, a majority of the respondents i.e. 82 (45%) are illiterates. The next more number of respondents have studied up to primary and secondary level i.e. 24 (13%). There are 21 (12%) of the respondents can read and write. A significant number of respondents i.e. 18 (10%) claimed to have studied up to college level while the small number of people who have studied up to professional level, technical level and others stands at 7 (4%), 3 (2%) and 2 (1%) respectively. The findings reveal that more number of the respondents i.e. 55 (30.4%) are labourers and one-fourths of the respondents i.e. 45 (24.9%) are engaging in the farming. On the whole 38(21%) are continuing their caste occupation while 20 (11%) and 17 (9.4%) respondents are doing other occupation and brought up into the service sector respectively. Only a few of the respondents i.e. 6 (3.3%) are carrying out business.

It is also noted that a majority of the respondents i.e. 84.21% are living under the tiled houses and a significant number of the respondents i.e. 15.79% posses R.C.C houses. A substantial number of the BC community respondents i.e. 75% owned the tiled house and rest of them i.e. 14.29% have R.C.C. houses and 8.04% own asbestos roofed houses. Most of the SC respondents i.e. 91.49% are residing under the tiled houses while only 8.51% consist R.C.C. houses. Among the ST respondents, 33.33% have R.C.C., tiled house and thatched house equally. Regarding the income, less than 24% of the respondents earn Rs. 1501 – 2000 per month. Almost equal number i.e. 22.7 and 21.5 % of the respondents earn below Rs. 500 and between Rs. 1001 and 1500 respectively. A significant number of respondents i.e. 20 % obtaining monthly income is in the range of Rs. 501 – 1000 while only 12.7% claimed their income was over Rs. 2000.

This village consist very good fertile lands, There is just below half of the respondents i.e. 84 (46.4%) have not possess any land on their own. There are 35 (19.3%) of the respondents possess land between 1- 2.19 acres. A significant number of respondents i.e. 28 (15.5%) and 20 (11.04%) are having land between 2.20 – 4.39 acres and 5 – 9.39 acres respectively. A considerable number of respondents i.e. 14 (7.7%) are owned land 10 and above acres.

Social Dogmatism on Menstruation

Patriarchal societies have tended to control women by first announcing menarche (the onset of menstrual cycle in a young girl) to the world in an apparently celebratory fashion while thereafter attempting to control the implied fertility and sexual power by monthly rites of pollution, restriction and isolation of the menstruating woman.

The various names for menstruation or ‘periods’ point to its polluting quality. For instance in Telugu, it is called samurta or peddamanshi meaning attaining maturity. Menstrual blood is believed to be polluting. There are varying restrictions put on a girl due to this belief such as not touching people or hanging washed clothes out to dry; not touching certain flowering plants lest they die or not fruit; sleeping on a jute bag or woollen blanket away from others. A woman cannot touch her child during menstruation. If she has to, the child must first be unclothed completely or made to wear silken clothes. Visiting or touching images of gods, temples, religious scriptures is also prohibited. A fear is inculcated in the adolescent that she will sin if she breaks these taboos. Restrictions are also placed on diet. These pollution taboos result in many women getting an enforced rest for at least these three days of the month since they are barred from carrying out their normal activities.

Not only is menstrual blood supposed to be dirty, but evil too. A menstruating girl should not let her shadow fall on a child with measles lest the child turn blind. The used menstrual cloth also possesses an evil quality. If men see the cloth, dry or otherwise, they could go blind. If a cow were to swallow the cloth she would curse the girl with infertility. In villages in A.P., women do not throw their menstrual cloth-they either burn it or bury it.

There seem to be some similarities between Hindus and Muslims regarding the practice of some of these rituals. Among Muslims, the menstruating woman should not touch holy books lest they become impure. Converted Christians follow, although to a lesser degree, the rituals of their original castes. The taboos and rituals clearly devalue. Women’s reproductive powers. The notion of women being polluted and unclean can be ascribed to patriarchal control of women’s reproductive powers. While the woman fulfils a vital social role of giving birth to progeny through her biological reproductive capacity, she is, at the same time, isolated during menstruation.

Cultural Practices of Puberty

Most women do not know about the physiology of menstruation and therefore the first experience of menstruation is filled with fear, shame and disgust. In some areas such as in rural areas of A.P. the girl is sometimes told to dub three or four dots of menstrual blood or mustard oil on the wall and draw a line between the second and third or third and fourth; it is believed that she will finish her menstruation within two and a half or three and a half days in all subsequent periods.

Elaborate rituals are performed in south Indian states-as well as in many parts of north India-at the onset of menstruation. The onset of puberty is traditionally viewed in terms of the girl’s emergent sexuality and prospective motherhood. The pubescent girl is given an elaborate ritual bath, after a massage with turmeric and vermillion. The Mudiraj communities in A.P. isolate the pubescent girl for 21 days within the house, away from the male gaze. The room in which she is secluded is separated with an iron rod and a fire is kept constantly burning during this period. Fire signifies purity and also keeps away daiyyam or witches and evil spirits. The girl is polluted and hence prohibited from touching people and other people are not allowed to touch her. In case of default, a bath is essential for ritual purification.

The Impact of the Food Habits on Women Health:

Although women are more or less marginalized and neglected in relation to the quality and quantity of food, certain occasions in a woman’s life are celebrated with the offering of a variety of nutritious foods specially prepared for her. Almost every community has the practice of feeding a girl on her first menstruation with delicious and nutritive foods, with the time of seclusion for the period ranging between nine to 21 days. In parts of A.P., sweets made of jaggery, groundnuts, sesame, fenugreek, wheat flour and sorgum are given to the girl. Menstruation for the first time in the house of one’s in-laws is also considered very auspicious in all regions of A.P. and is celebrated with gaiety.. The idea seems to be to give the girl ‘rich’, that is, strength-giving foods as well as both ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods.

Certain ‘hot’ foods (like jaggery) and ‘cold’ foods (like tamarind and lemons) are taboo as it is believed that the girl will suffer from menstrual pain. ‘Hot’ foods may cause heavy bleeding and ‘cold’ foods may cause severe menstrual pain. Special foods are understood to compensate for the loss of blood, regularise the menstrual cycle and flow, strengthen her reproductive organs and generally contribute to her fertility.

Work Prohibition of Pregnant Women:

It is also observed during the fieldwork that almost all the respondents have revealed that prohibition of work is compulsory while a women pregnancy but this notion is varies to one community to another. The higher social status communities are not allowed to perform the works even domestic works also from the early months to after late months of maternity. Whereas weaker section women perform the daily domestic actives some of them perform field activates but it is only in the early months. They should also take rest in the late months of pregnancy and early months of maternity.

Encourage and Disencourage Food Items During the Pregnancy of Women:

During pregnancy and lactation, many traditional communities across the country restrict a woman’s food intake. It is believed that if a pregnant woman eats too much, the foetus will not have room to move. The abdomen is supposed to contain both the food and the foetus and the latter’s space needs should be given greater priority. Another reason for controlling a pregnant woman’s food consumption is perhaps that excess weight would reduce the productivity of her work in the fields and around the house. A widely prevalent practice all over India is shrimanta. In the seventh month of pregnancy special rituals are performed and different types of sweets are prepared and given to the parents-to-be. The purpose is to give moral support and encouragement to the pregnant woman and celebrate her achievement of having reached near full-term. The sweets are generally made of wheat flour, jaggery, ghee, fenugreek and dry fruits. In the final stages of pregnancy, the pregnant woman is supposed to cat these foods custom every day. This is a good custom because it provides the calories and protein needed for the rapidly growing foetus in the last trimester of pregnancy.

Food Items Encourage % Disencourage %

1.Milk 173 95.5 8 4.4

2.Green leafs 148 81.7 33 18.2

3.Toddy 80 44.1 101 55.8

4.Non-Veg 132 72.9 49 27

5.Papaya — — 181 100

6.Potato 49 27 132 72.9

7.Brinjal 50 27.6 131 72.3

The above table explains the villager’s perceptions on encourage and disencourage food items during the pregnancy of women. The data shows that there are 173 (95.5%) of the respondents have stated that they are encouraging milk and its related food items and only insignificant number of respondents i.e.8 (4.4%) are not encouraging the food items of milk. As many as 148 (81.7%) of them revealed that they are encouraging green leafs and rest of the significant number of respondents i.e. 33 (18.2%) are not interested to give the green leafs to the pregnants. Interestingly the data depicts that more than half of the respondents i.e. 101 (55.8%) have said that they are encouraging toddy and 80 (44.1%) of them are not giving taking toddy. A substantial number of the respondents i.e. 132 (72.9%) have expressed that they are encouraging the consummation of non-vegetarian foods like mutton, chicken and egg. The total number of respondents is practicing the prohibition of papaya consummation during the pregnancy. All most all equal number of respondents i.e. 49 (27%) and 50 (27.6%) have revealed that Potato and Brinjal are encouraged food items and as similar 132 (72.9%) and 131 (72.3%) of them are not encouraging the food items of Potato and Brinjal.

The data regarding Caring of Pregnant Women among the Villagers clarifies the pursuance of the opinion of several communities respondents such as Yadava 14 (7.7%), Gouda 3 (1.7%), Munurukapu 11 (6.1%), Oddera 6 (3.3%), Vishwa Brahmin 5 (2.8%), Mala 25 (13.8%), Madiga 21 (11.6%), Padmashali 7 (3.9%), each 3 (1.7%) of Mangali, Dudekula and Erukala, Kumari 2 (1.1%) and each 1 (0.6%) of Pusala, Mera, Chindi and Dakkali have stated that family and their kins are taking care of their pregnant women. In this category the total numbers of SC and ST communities are appeared because of less financial status and peer group pressure. A majority number of working caste like Yadava, Munnurukapu, Oddera, Padmashali, Dudekula and Kummari are appeared. However, these communities’ people are visiting either government or private hospital for check up their health conditions during early pregnant hood as well as before delivery. One more interesting thing that the caste Mangali itself is traditional birth attendant community in this village so we may consider them in response to this query that they are taking care about pregnant as a traditional birth attendant and as a family. On the whole 3 (1.7 %) of Yadava, 2 (1.1 %) Gouda, 1 (0.6 %) of Munnurukapu and Kummari, 8 (4.4 %) of Chakali, 5 (2.7%) of Dudekula and the total number of Mudiraj 7 (4%) community respondent have expressed that traditional birth attendant are taking care about pregnant of their communities. It is important to note that previous these caste people took care about pregnant but at presently they are seeking the help of traditional birth attendant by reason of saving of time. These kind of villagers always busy in their routine work if they involve in the caring process they should be lost more time in order to money also. The data also describes that all most all the respondents of Deshmukh 3 (1.6%), Vysya 4 (2.2%) and Vaisnava 5 (2.7%) communities have revealed that health workers or ANMs are looking after the pregnant women. It may due to the higher awareness regarding health and personal bias or prejudices of health workers or ANMs who are interested to associate with the higher social status communities.

On account of preferable birthplace; the responses of majority respondents i.e. 112 (62%) is that birth at the traditional birth attendant is more preferable. As many as number of respondent i.e. 36 (20%) have revealed that they prepared birthplace is Government Hospitals and the reaming respondents i.e. 32 (18%) have expressed their perception that Private Hospital are preferable to give the birth. The cluster analysis of data also provides the social status wise explanation that there are 7 (4%) of OC respondents, 19 (10.5%) of BCs and 10 (5.5%) of SCs are interested to go to the government hospitals. There are 10 (5.5%) of OCs and 23 (12.7%) of BCs were interested on Privates hospitals. Among the reaming of categories, the more number of BC respondents i.e. 70 (38.5%), 37 (20.5%) and the total number of ST community respondents i.e. 3 (1.7%) and only few {2(1.1%)} of OC respondent are still interested to give birth under the observation or treatment of traditional birth attendant.

Practices after Delivery:

Women underfed themselves during pregnancy and strove for a small baby to ensure easy delivery. Babies were not to be breast fed on first three days and baby-clothes were not used till a ceremony (purudu/Naming) on 9th day to 21st day. Mothers could not leave the delivery room till that day. To minimize the toilet needs, they severely restricted their intake of fluids and food during first week after delivery. Mothers did not wash hands properly; their clothes and linen were often dirty. Newborn babies, even if sick, were not moved out of home. The usual explanations for the sicknesses in neonates were ‘evil eye’, ‘witch craft’, or ill effects of foods eaten by mother.

The practice of breast-feeding female children for shorter periods of time reflects the strong desire for sons. If women are particularly anxious to have a male child, they may deliberately try to become pregnant again as soon as possible after a female is born. Conversely, women may consciously seek to avoid another pregnancy after the birth of a male child in order to give maximum attention to the new son

Summary and Conclusions:

Due to the orthodoxical and traditional dogma, majority numbers of respondent are not possess proper notion on Women’s health. In addition to supernatural beliefs about what brings on disease, women also have some beliefs about the non-physical causes of ill-health. The most commonly found syndrome was ‘weakness’ which consists of fatigue, body ache, ghabrahat (a generic term used for anxiety, fear, restlessness, trepidation, etc.), pallor, low backache and burning of palms and feet. Thus poverty, illiteracy and social backwardness complete the subordination of women. In reality, therefore, most women carry a tremendous degree of mental anguish and agony due to the improper beliefs and practices.

However, practices existed to over come or to tune with the problems, which may be physical, psychological, cultural and environmental. Subsequently practices are to be strengthen in order to persisting as the beliefs. Once, belief is to be got its own identity; the existence of practice should automatically come by the deeds of the victims or followers. Sometimes belief might be deteriorate due to the business, cost effective and the rationalism should also vanish the irrational beliefs so that we can eventually conclude beliefs exist by the practices which may takes place to over come the problems or to adjust with the nature.



2. Giger, J.N., & Davidhizar, R. E. (2004): “Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention” (4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby publication.

3. Spector, R. E. (2004): “Cultural diversity in health & illness” (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Health publication..

4. Bundek, N. I., Marks, G., & Richardson, J. I. (1993): “Role of health locus of control beliefs in cancer screening of elderly Hispanic women”. Health Psychology, 12(3), 193-1999.

5. Pachter, L. M. (1994) “Culture and clinical care: Folk illness beliefs and behaviors and their implications for health care delivery”. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271(9), 690-694.

6. Roberson, M. H. (1987): “Folk health beliefs of health professional”. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 9(2), 257-263.

7. Treistman, J. (1988): “Health beliefs in socio-cultural perspective”. In G. Caliandro & B. L. Judkins (Ed.), Primary nursing practice (pp. 119-133). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

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Local festivities celebrate and bash Valentine’s Day
It’s that time of year again. Flowers and chocolate will flood mailboxes just as Facebook relationship statuses will amass comments – for better or worse. Both singles and couples can anticipate something “special” on Valentine’s Day.

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Written by Ralph. Posted in Foreign Girls for Marriage

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Foreign Bride Questions:

Who do you report an inappropriate IM to?

My grown son receives IMs DAILY from Russian women who send him nude pics and ask for money so they can come to US. It’s absolutely sickening! What can be done?

Two things of note.

What is he using the internet for / in what ways, that people are getting his email address or IM screen name and not realizing he is a teenage boy? Is he lying about his stats, perhaps on myspace or xanga or another blogging (daily journal) website?

Second, you should just delete the incoming IMs and ignore them for 2-3 weeks and if they don’t stop, it might be time to get him a new email address and correct the actions that led to his situation.

If the IM is serious, there is a link below that you can use to report abuse in Yahoo Messenger!

I wish you luck with that.

Russian Boxing Babe, Natalia Ragozina

Russian born Natalia Ragozina is not just another gorgeous Russian woman, but also a beautiful boxing champion. Although she never dreamt she would become a world class fighter. 

Natalia wanted to be a stewardess when she was young, but when she boarded a plane, she realized she was afraid to fly! She then set her sights on becoming a famous model. After sending photos and applying to several Moscow modeling agencies, she became quickly disappointed that she was not getting many results from the modeling world. So she changed her focus again; this time on martial arts.

She was first invited to the gym by some male friends. They handed her some gloves and she jumped into the ring. Her first bout ended with a broken nose and a bloody lip, but she was hooked. That first defeat inspired her to continuing training so she could beat the boys. She soon became a strong, talented athlete and then the modeling agencies and movie directors were knocking down her door. She continued to focus on her sport, winning many championships, but likes to act and model on the side. She is looking forward to competing in the 2012 London Summer Olympics now that women’s boxing is included in the games.

She is known for wearing a unique boxing outfit in every fight, like a schoolgirl uniform or some other cute getup involving a short skirt. She says, “Women’s boxing should look nice and feminine,” and remarks that she likes “to do things with beauty and grace.” This seems to be common with all Russian girls.

But these are interesting comments considering the core brutality of the sport. What if her pretty face gets badly injured? She says she knows she will need her appearance more than her strength in the future, so she tries to keep her distance and not let her opponents get too close to punching her face. 

Hot Nigerian Girls

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Leading by Example: Eight Lessons for Leaders Striving to Pull Their Companies Out of the Red

Leading by Example: Eight Lessons for Leaders Striving to Pull Their Companies Out of the Red

Though the forecast for the economy is starting to improve, the plight of recession-weary businesses is still difficult. If you’re struggling to find a way to motivate your employees when offering money isn’t an option, here’s some advice for you: Focus on becoming a great leader. There are few things your employees will appreciate more. 

By Charles Garcia 

After months of economic tough times, a glimmer of light is starting to appear at the end of the proverbial tunnel. Rather than being harbingers of doom, economic news stories are now starting to look ever so slightly brighter. This improved economic forecast will likely have many company leaders looking for ways to motivate their employees to keep up the hard work necessary for navigating their companies into calmer waters. Unfortunately, despite the recent economic uptick, most company leaders still can’t offer what they view as their greatest motivational bargaining chip with their employees—the almighty dollar.

Fear not. Money isn’t the only way to rally your troops and boost morale during this crucial time. In fact, positive, strong leadership can often garner far greater results than offering money or other perks ever could.

Too often businesses assume that offering more money is the only way to motivate employees. The reality is that employees value having strong leaders, who motivate them to do their best, just as much if not more. And there’s no greater defense against a tough economy than a workforce motivated to do their absolute best.

As an alum of the White House Fellowship program, one of the most prestigious leadership programs in the country, I know the value of quality leadership.

There’s never been a more appropriate time for the rest of us to look to great leaders for inspiration. The lessons that can be learned from the White House Fellows mentors are universal and absolutely invaluable to any business leader smart enough to heed them.

Remember, all the money in the world won’t keep a hardworking but unhappy employee with your company. But follow the leadership principles that help you better motivate and encourage that employee and she will be just as invested in making your company a success as you are.

Using insightful, firsthand accounts from past program participants, my new book, Leadership Lessons of the White House Fellows: Learn How to Inspire Others, Achieve Greatness, and Find Success in Any Organization (McGraw-Hill, 2009, ISBN: 978-0-07-159848-4, $24.95), explores the leadership lessons that former White House Fellows said they took away from their year working under some of the best of the best in Washington, D.C.

Leadership Lessons of the White House Fellows includes twenty timeless tenets of successful leadership, each illustrated by multiple inspiring anecdotes. Here are eight lessons from some of the nation’s greatest leaders:

LEADERSHIP LESSON #1: Energize your people. Your employees have just helped you pull your company through one of the nation’s worst economic periods. They’ve been constantly bombarded with bad news in their own lives and in their work lives. It’s time they had a source of positive energy. Who better for them to turn to for that kind of encouragement than you, their leader? Instead of being the type of leader who sucks the energy away from others, resolve to be the kind of leader who strives to bring passion and positive energy to the workplace every day.



U.S. Major John Patrick Gallagher (WHF 07-08) learned about leadership from General David Petraeus. General Petraeus was a colonel in the 82nd Airborne Division at the same time Gallagher was assigned to the division as a second lieutenant. One day Petraeus called his brigade together and asked them who could tell him the number one leadership priority of the brigade. The answers ranged from integrity to professional and tactical competence to marksmanship until finally someone hit the nail on the head. The answer? Physical fitness.

“We all thought he was kidding, and we couldn’t for the life of us figure out how that could be the number one priority in the brigade,” recalled Gallagher. “But we learned later that he was right. Self-discipline and being able to perform under pressure and exist outside our comfort zone would be the key that unlocked our success.”

Petraeus began leading his troops through seventy-five minutes of intense exercise every morning. And with every pull-up, push-up, and sprint, the brigade became more alert, had more physical and mental energy, and more individual and team pride.

“All those other things we wanted to do well got better, whether it was marksmanship or vehicle maintenance or soldiers going on leave and not getting arrested for DUI,” Gallagher said. “All these other indicators went up when Petraeus created this climate of self-discipline. He boiled down his leadership approach to this: Am I giving my subordinates energy or am I taking it away? Put another way, am I leading in a way that causes my subordinates to be more enthusiastic and creative about doing their jobs—to believe more deeply in what they are doing and why they are doing it—or am I leading in such a way that it is stifling growth and enthusiasm? If the latter is true, the job may still get done by the sheer force of your legitimacy or presence, but it doesn’t get done as well and it doesn’t last after you’re gone. Petraeus knows how to lead in such a way that it gives his subordinates energy. That’s an incredibly powerful leadership tool.”

Since leaving his Fellowship, Gallagher has been using that tool daily in his role as Director for the War of Ideas and Strategic Communications at the National Security Council’s Office of Iraq and Afghanistan Affairs. 

LEADERSHIP LESSON #2: There’s more to life than work. Great leaders have deep reserves of physical, spiritual, and emotional energy, and that energy is usually fueled by a strong and supportive relationship with the people they love, regular exercise, a healthy lifestyle, and setting aside time for reflection. 

Sure, you want your employees to stay focused on moving your company forward, and you might feel like it’s important to keep everyone’s noses (including your own!) to the grindstone right now, but it’s also summer time. There are barbecues and baseball games to attend, warm days to be spent at the park or by the pool, and much-earned vacation time waiting to be used! Encourage your employees to spend time with their families, whether it results from taking an afternoon off or going on a week-long vacation. Doing so will help them power up for the difficult work to come. And remember to give yourself the same respect! 


At 6:00 a.m. on a cold January morning in 1973, presidential historian, Pulitzer Prize-winning author, and NBC news analyst Doris Kearns Goodwin (WHF 67-68) received a call from former President Lyndon B. Johnson, with whom she had become a trusted confidante while working on his memoirs.

“He told me to get married, have children, and spend time with them,” Goodwin said. “He talked about how he should have spent more time with his family, because that’s a different and more worthy kind of posterity than the public one that he had been seeking throughout his entire political career. That would be our last conversation, because he died of a heart attack two days later—but what a wonderful thing to leave me with.”

Goodwin heeded Johnson’s words. For example, she turned down the chance to be considered for the position of head of the Peace Corps during the Carter administration because she knew it would require her to travel often and be away from her young children. Over the years she’s concluded that those who live the richest lives manage to achieve a healthy balance of work, love, and play.

“To commit yourself to just one of those spheres without the others is to leave open an older age filled with sadness, because once the work is gone, you have nothing left—no hobbies, no sports,” Goodwin said. “Your family may love you, but they are not in the center of your life as they might have been had you paid attention to them all the way through. And I always argue that the ability to relax and replenish your energy is absolutely essential.”


LEADERSHIP LESSON #3: Put your people first. No organization is better than the people who run it. The fact is that you are in the people business—the business of hiring, training, and managing people to deliver the product or service you provide. If the people are the engine of your success, to be a great leader you need to attend to your people with a laserlike focus.



Mitchell Reiss (WHF 88-89) has seen firsthand that a leader’s focus on his or her people is an incredibly powerful tool. He learned that valuable lesson during his White House Fellowship from his principal, the National Security Advisor and former Secretary of State and former White House Fellow Colin Powell.

“Two weeks after I started my Fellowship, there was a picnic over the weekend for the National Security Council staff and their families,” Reiss recalled. “We got there promptly, but General Powell was already there helping set up, helping cook the burgers and hot dogs, and personally greeting every single person, not just on the staff but their families. He came over to me and knew not only my name but introduced himself to my wife, Elisabeth, and thanked her for allowing me to work the hours that I worked at the NSC. He told her she should feel that she is part of the NSC family as well.

“That very brief but very personal interaction with Powell had an extraordinary impact on her. After he left, she turned to me and said, ‘You better do a good job for that man. If you need to stay late at work, I will never complain.’ That’s the sort of transformative impact that leadership can have, and I was able to see it up close and personal with Colin Powell. This lesson was invaluable when I later worked at the State Department, where I tried to replicate this sense of teamwork and compassion.”


LEADERSHIP LESSON #4: Act with integrity. In a time when news reports are filled with the stories of private and public leaders who’ve acted inappropriately and have gone against the best interests of their employees or constituents, showing your employees that you value integrity can help motivate them and create a sense of pride for your organization.


Remember, the actions of great leaders are consistent with their words. Saying the right thing doesn’t mean much. Doing the right thing means everything when you want people to follow you passionately. By acting with honor and integrity, you build trust with your followers.



During his Fellowship, Dennis Blair (WHF 75-76)—current Director of National Intelligence, former Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, retired four-star navy admiral, and former Rhodes Scholar—was one of a group of special assistants to Housing and Urban Development Secretary Carla Hills. He witnessed how Secretary Hills fought to maintain an honest, aboveboard environment despite ample opportunities for duplicity.

“The Department of Housing and Urban Development has been rocked by one scandal after another over the years,” Blair explained. “It moves a lot of money around and sends it down to the local level, where things can get pretty raw…There’s just a lot of potential for corruption, but one of the leadership lessons I took away from that assignment was from the tone that Carla Hills set. She was fiercely, unflinchingly determined to do the right thing and never batted an eye about it. Whenever misconduct came to light, she dealt with it quickly and effectively, firing people if necessary and then moving on.”

During Blair’s year in Washington, President Ford was up for reelection. The president and his cabinet, including Hills, were under intense pressure to run a winning campaign. Although everyone’s job was at stake, Blair saw no one abuse his or her power or resort to cheap tactics to influence the election.

“Carla Hills never came in and said, ‘We’re in trouble in Ohio. I want to push some Section 8 money toward Ohio, and I want a big publicity drive so we can turn out a lot of votes there.’” Blair said. “There was none of that. They played by the rules and fought fair and always tried to do the right thing.”

During his own career, Blair had several opportunities to “shade his principles” for his own benefit, but chose not to. On at least one occasion, doing the right thing cost him dearly. Although he couldn’t provide details, he did reveal that because of his leadership role he had a shot at becoming vice chairman or even chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. To be considered for one of those jobs, he would have had to modify his philosophy and change his leadership style to please a new administration. He chose to stick with the methods and values he had developed throughout his career.

“It wasn’t that difficult a decision,” he said. “Certainly I would have relished the chance to make more of a difference in that higher position, but I was not willing to change my philosophy or my style. I had too much confidence in my approach to change it even though I knew that meant I wasn’t going to move up further in the organization.”


LEADERSHIP LESSON #5: Be a great communicator. If your employees aren’t heeding your advice or company protocols, the problem likely lies with you, not them. Are you using the methods of communication they prefer? Are your messages clear and easy to understand? Leadership is about influencing others, and this cannot be achieved without the ability to communicate. If you’re struggling with communicating to your employees, first work on your ability to influence individuals by choosing words that are impactful to carry your message. Then you need to figure out how to communicate to a larger audience.


Remember to be open and honest with your employees. Communicate to them how the economy is affecting the company and where you would like to take it in the future. And always keep in mind that your actions truly speak louder than your words.



After learning the value of quality communication from her Fellowship principal, U.S. Treasury Secretary William “Bill” Miller, Marsha “Marty” Evans (WHF 79-80) carried on the tradition in her work with the Navy.

In 1986, former Fellow and Naval Academy Superintendent Chuck Larson (WHF 68-69) tapped Evans to be one of six battalion officers at the Naval Academy—the first female battalion officer in Navy history—placing her in charge of the training and well-being of hundreds of midshipmen. The academy was meant to be a place of discipline and decorum, but occasionally a lower classman would slip up by wearing nonregulation clothing. When Evans saw a third classman in a Budweiser t-shirt one day, she assumed there had been a breakdown in communication.

“I remember the lecture so well,” Evans recalled. “I said, ‘You know, my own basic leadership belief is that people generally want to do the right thing, and if they’re not doing the right thing it’s because they haven’t been trained properly. They haven’t somehow had the benefit of the teaching and the leadership of their seniors. So, I can only come to the conclusion that this youngster is wearing this t-shirt because he has suffered from faulty communication by his midshipman chain of command.’ Each person in the third classman’s chain of command was held accountable and punished.”

Evans’s commonsense approach to encouraging better communication in her organization helped her create a more cohesive team and also garnered the Navy’s attention. She was promoted steadily throughout her thirty-year career and retired as a two-star rear admiral, one of only a few women to attain the rank. Since leaving the military, Evans has used her outstanding communication skills in her roles as director of the Girl Scouts of the USA and president and CEO of the American Red Cross.


LEADERSHIP LESSON #6: Be a great listener. The most effective leaders are the ones who take the time to listen not just to their team members’ words but to the priceless hidden meaning beneath them. Remember that during good times and bad, sometimes your employees just need someone to talk to. Communicate to them that you are always waiting with open ears.



Cesar Aristeiguieta (WHF 02-03) was assigned to work with Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson during his Fellowship. It wasn’t long before the young White House Fellow noticed an important leadership trait in his principal that he hoped to nurture in himself: Secretary Thompson was an outstanding listener.

One example of this came during a meeting with food industry executives who were brought in by Secretary Thompson to discuss their role in the rise in childhood obesity. The executives essentially told Thompson that the government should stay out of their business.

After listening to them for almost an hour, Aristeiguieta recalls that Thompson responded with the following: “‘I’ve heard you. I understand your concerns. Now I need you to tell me how you, as an industry, can help address this public health issue.’ Then he just sat back and listened again. Pretty soon they were talking about how they could step up and participate without being forced into it—how they could begin putting more healthy food choices on their menus and those kinds of things—and by the end of the meeting the tone had changed dramatically. They weren’t attacking the secretary anymore. They were actually pleased, and they felt that they were part of the dialogue, and in fact, they probably went further than the secretary really expected them to go at that point.

“From that meeting I learned the value of listening. I’ve tried to incorporate that into my own leadership style in my work as director of emergency medical services and disaster preparedness for Emergent Medical Associates and also in my role as an assistant professor in emergency medicine at the University of California-Davis.”


LEADERSHIP LESSON #7: Be a problem solver. Several years ago I returned from a business trip to find that my assistant had hung a gigantic fifteen-foot-long wooden sign above his office door. The sign reads, “Don’t Bring Me Problems. Bring Me Solutions.”


I suggest that you post a similar sign and then set about the task of guiding each person on your team toward the goal of becoming a top-notch problem solver during this crucial period. Sure, it takes time and effort to teach problem-solving strategies to your people, but when you experience the payoff, you’ll know it was an investment worth making.



In 1975, President Gerald Ford chose former White House Fellow Julia Vadala Taft (WHF 70-71) to direct the resettlement of refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos after the collapse of Saigon. The resettlement program brought 131,000 refugees to the U.S. in six months. There was no template and no time plan. The work just had to get done, and Taft directed it all with humor, grace, and a backbone of steel.

During her career as a public servant, Taft helped reshape the Refugee Act of 1980, and helped organize relief for the people of war-torn and disaster-ridden countries throughout the world, including 25 million flood victims left homeless in Bangladesh, displaced people in Burundi, victims of a poison gas incident in Cameroon, the people of the Sahel and Ethiopia who were suffering from a widespread famine after a locust plague, and 800,000 refugees driven from Kosovo.

When she died from colon cancer in 2008, former White House Fellow and longtime friend Colin Powell was quoted in the New York Times obituary section as saying that Julia Taft “was an image of American openness and generosity. Her professional life was committed to people trying to get by on a dollar a day, those who are hungry, without clean water, without medicine, without homes.”

Taft’s obituary in the Washington Post on March 19 stated, “It was her ability to bring order to chaos—plus her willingness to get on a plane, helicopter, jeep, or riverboat to go almost anywhere that enabled her to make a difference. Whether in the White House, a refugee camp, or meeting with government and [nongovernmental organization] officials, she knew how to get people moving.”


LEADERSHIP LESSON #8: Lead through experience and competence, not through title or position. For more than four decades, by pairing young people with established leaders, the White House Fellows program has given hundreds of young Americans the tools, experiences, and mentors necessary for them to become confident, well-prepared problem solvers and leaders.


And if you want to survive the tough economy, that’s exactly the kind of leadership motif you’ll adopt for your organization. Mentor your employees, encourage them, make partners out of them, and your organization is sure to benefit.



The ability to help propelled Arthur “Gene” Dewey (WHF 68-69) from his post as assistant to a high-ranking military officer into a White House Fellowship at the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Dewey’s principal at USAID, Bill Gaud, put him right to work. He sent Dewey to Nigeria where USAID was spending a great deal of money supporting those caught up in the Nigerian-Biafran war, and Gaud wanted to make sure all of the supplies were getting through.

Dewey found that the Nigerian Air Force was shooting down relief planes during the night airlifts, and so he hatched a plan to get food in by using a combination of sealift and riverboats. He presented the idea to Clyde Ferguson, President Nixon’s special representative for Nigeria-Biafra at the State Department. Ferguson asked him to come work for him for a couple of weeks on what was dubbed the Cross River Scheme.

With no previous experience coordinating large-scale relief efforts, Dewey set about the task of making the project safer and more efficient. As the efforts to bring relief to the people of Biafra—just over 3 million people fell under the plan—continued, Dewey became more involved in the diplomacy required to set up a formal, enduring procedure for getting food and other supplies to the Biafrans. Unfortunately, the Biafran leader, Governor Ojukwu, refused to accept the plan even though it was clearly designed to benefit his people. Ferguson and Dewey were heartbroken.

Then Dewey had a fateful meeting with an initially very negative Catholic bishop on the island. The bishop complained that the U.S. was not doing enough to help the Biafrans. Dewey informed him that Ojukwu was the one holding up the agreement while his people suffered. He then explained the Cross River plan to the bishop, whose attitude gradually softened. The conversation closed with the bishop promising that when Ojukwu came to confession later that week, he would have a talk with him and get him to change his mind.

Dewey was skeptical. But just a couple of days later, after he had arrived back in New York, he received a call telling him that General Ojukwu would accept the proposal.

Dewey says that the greatest leadership lesson he learned from his White House Fellowship was the necessity of being prepared and becoming an expert. His title as a White House Fellow meant virtually nothing as he designed and tried to execute the Cross River plan in Nigeria. What counted were his expertise and his attitude.


Just because the economy has been slow and businesses have experienced set-backs, does not mean the fundamentals of leadership need to change. The leadership qualities espoused by mentors in the White House Fellows program translate perfectly to the workplaces and the government offices of 2009 America. Decide today to start motivating your employees by being the best leader you can be and you’ll all go far, despite the bad economy.

# # #


About the Author:

Charles P. Garcia is a former White House Fellow, graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, Columbia Law School graduate, and best-selling author. In 2006, he sold his investment banking firm, which grew from three people to sixty offices in seven countries; Inc. magazine identified it as one of the top ten fastest-growing privately held companies in the United States. Garcia was named entrepreneur of the year by three national organizations. He is on the board of Fortune 500 companies and serves as the chairman of the Board of Visitors of the U.S. Air Force Academy.


For more information about him, please visit


About the Book:

Leadership Lessons of the White House Fellows: Learn How to Inspire Others, Achieve Greatness, and Find Success in Any Organization (McGraw-Hill, 2009, ISBN: 978-0-07-159848-4, $24.95) is available at bookstores nationwide and all major online booksellers.

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Congo Republic Declares a Polio Emergency
An explosive outbreak of polio is taking place in the Congo Republic, with 201 cases of paralysis found in two weeks and 104 deaths, the World Health Organization said Tuesday.

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Black Brides

Written by Ralph. Posted in Foreign Girls for Marriage

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black brides

Mother Of The Bride Dress And Duties


• Discussing with the bride on which mother of the bride dress colors are appropriate for the wedding.

• Mother of the bride can choose her color or colors then. She can choose a mother of the bride dress by going to the department stores or bridal shops that carry mother of the bride dresses and gowns or she can even go with a nice, embellished suit.

• The mother of the bride can also let her “fingers do the shopping”. There are tons of great ideas for a mother of the bride dress online. Do a search for “mother of the bride gowns” or “mother of the bride dresses”. Websites usually offer the latest designs for reasonable prices.

• Mother of the bride will choose a color that complements the wedding color/colors. If this a difficult thing to do, the basic colors of silver, black, navy, beige, or champagne are acceptable colors to wear. Ivory is acceptable too–it is no longer taboo at weddings (or even black–“black and white” weddings!), if the bride agrees to it.

• Mother of the bride can then decide on the length of the dress. Will she be happier with a long, floor-length gown, or will she look better in a more semi-formal, tea-length or even knee-length style?

• Confer with the mother of the groom on all mother of the bride dress or gown choices. They will both want to coordinate their choice of outfits.

• Shop for a dress at LEAST two to four months in advance of the wedding date. This will allow ample time for dress exchanges, alterations, and the purchase of shoes and accessories. This will limit some of the stress when the mother of the bride plans early.


• The mother of the bride will assist the bride with the selection of her wedding dress and accessories. Also, choosing of the bridesmaids, maid of honor and the color theme of the wedding, wedding song, etc.

• The mother of the bride helps the bride and the groom in gathering the names of wedding guests and narrowing down the guest list.

• The mother of the bride aids in selecting the wedding invitations and the writing out the invitation copy.

• The mother of the bride is the assistant or is solely responsible for the other wedding details like photography/videography, wedding cake, bridal accessories, bridal shower arrangements, wedding bouquet and flowers, food catering, wedding favors, pastor/minister/church, banquet room, reception, lodging for out-of-town guests, etc.

• The mother of the bride leaves the wedding ceremony area after the bride and groom and before the guests.

• The mother of the bride greet guests as they file into the reception room, or at signing of the wedding register.

• The mother of the bride dances with the father of the bride or if unavailable, the escort, and then with the groom during the first formal dance.

• The mother of the bride ensures that all the guests are happy and having a great time and most importantly, that she, the bride, and groom, are having fun as well despite all the stress and the “hoopla”.

Black Veil Brides “Knives and Pens” Standby Records

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