ethiopia dating Archaeology: Dating oldest use of stone tools no easy task
Stone tools have been a hallmark of humanity since our beginnings in Africa. The oldest-known stone tools date to about 2.6 million years ago and are presumed to be the work of the oldest member of our genus – Homo habilis. New discoveries in Ethiopia, however, suggest that some early human ancestor was using stone tools to butcher animals more than 800,000 years earlier. Ethiopian Princesses Seeking Marriage Vol 1
I think these girl is so cute, but i can`t ask her out?
I think these girl is so cute, but i can`t ask her out? she is from Australia,and she is in psy class, she is so gorgeous, intelligent, sexy, i close my eyes and imaging that i be married to her,what i will do to her beautiful body,oh god, anywhere like i mention she is from Australia, and i am from Ethiopia, and i promised my parents, when i came to state, that i will not commit a sin, under Ethiopia Orthodox church, interracial dating ,marriage is sin?
what should i do?
dang boy you are moking jesus by saying that —anyway you are sick by saying “what i will do to her beautiful body” are you saying you want to ruin her life my have sex and suking her boobs …ewewewewe
As Dahir Rayaale hangs on to power beyond his presidential term and delays elections, Somaliland sleepwalks into a political crisis. This puts the country’s democratic process and its international standing at risk – the two most crucial goals that are indispensable for Somaliland’s political future.
Although the president ‘s term of office ends on 15 May, the country’s Upper Chamber, unelected body known to be close to the President, has unilaterally extended his tenure by one year recently, thereby ignoring the election plans agreed by all political parties and the National Election Commission (NEC). It is widely believed that Rayaale was behind this move, in a bid to extend his time in office.
In Somaliland, the move has caused widespread political furore. The opposition parties, the elected Lower Chamber of the Parliament, civil society and members of the public have expressed their objections to this unconstitutional step.
From the international community, the reaction was loud and clear too. The European Union, a key partner in Somaliland’s democratisation programme, articulated their concerns on the decision and called on all political groups in Somaliland to stick with the original election plans agreed by all stakeholders.
The government’s initial response to the public challenge was militaristic. The capital city of Hargeisa was put on curfew and armed military men are now patrolling the main streets. On 26 April, Hana Hassan Jama, was shot dead in Hargeisa by patrolling soldiers, and became the first victim of Rayaale’s stop-and–search orders. She was an innocent young girl who poses no threat to the national security.
To the outside world, the government’s reaction was equally shocking. In an astonishing statement, the Foreign Minister, Mr. Abdillaahi Du’ale, accused the European Union of interfering in Somaliland’s affairs, and told the EU that his government does not need their financial and technical support to Somaliland’s democratisation programme.
This statement is damaging to Somaliland’s international position and can negatively affect the search for recognition. One could actually argue that the Minister and the President, who has supported his Minister’s statement in a speech at the Parliament, have both shamelessly failed to serve Somaliland’s national and long-term interest in favour of their personal short-term political aims.
This comes from a government, which is supposedly promoting the democratisation process and the country’s relations with the international community – the two most important strategic objectives of Somaliland.
There are some possible explanations for the government’s behaviour. One explanation may be that Rayaale is trying to repeat what his predecessor, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, did in 1994, when the Guurti, (the current Upper Chamber) controversially extended his term of office. Egal then found himself embroiled in a range of conflicts with opposition forces, which lasted until October 1996.
It is also possible that Rayaale and his associates might have accepted the notions of multi-party democracy on paper only, and having won the 2003 election by a dubious small margin, are not ready to risk losing power, particularly, in the context of increasingly popular and incredibly powerful and united opposition, ready and eager to take over power. Rayaale seems to be feeling the heat already.
Another explanation could be that Rayaale is modelling ideas he borrowed from his peers in the region. Ethiopian Miles Zinawe has been in power since 1991, killing and detaining opposition figures during the 2005 parliamentary election. The Ethiopian Parliament still has empty seats, as detained MP did not take their seats.
In Eritrea, Isaias Afworki has nothing better to offer. He was elected as president by a transitional legislation in 1993, and he cancelled indefinitely the parliamentary election that was planned to take place in December 2001. The Eritrean constitution was ratified in May 1997 but has not yet been put into effect.
In Somalia, Abdillahi Yusuf, whose term of office will finish soon, does not appear to be preparing his country for the scheduled multi-party elections in the next year.
Yet, unlike Rayaale, Zenawi, Afworki and other leaders in Africa such as Mugabe offer historical narratives to justify their attempts to stay in power. Their desire to rule originates from their status as leaders of national liberation movements. They have liberated their countries either from colonial powers or oppressive regimes. Therefore, they perceive themselves as the heirs of their people’s freedom and feel connected with the grassroots through this history.
Interestingly, the above examples make Somaliland an odd one. In Somaliland, there is situation now in which the leader of the country’s popular liberation movement, Ahmed Siilaanyo, is an opposition leader, and all that he is asking for is a fair and timely election. This is in contrast to the mainstream political reality in Africa, which Somaliland should be proud of.
Somalilanders are not alone in taking their democracy serious. Most notable, president Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria was forced out when his term finished. In Kenya, people have attempted similar approaches. And, increasingly, other African nationals are demanding for their voices to be heard.
With the public fiercely opposing the controversial power extension, there is bound to be a political crisis in Somaliland after15 of May, the day the presidential term officially runs out. Forming a transitional administration, that would lead the nation to an election, is the most urgent political question Somaliland has to address.
The Lower Chamber, the only democratically elected body in the country after the 15 of May, must fill in the vacuum and help the country get through these worrisome days. It needs to provide an interim leadership, uphold the rule of law, offer a level playing field for the competing political parties, and above all, avoid conflict. This could be a defining moment for Somaliland’s House of Representatives.
Building hope for Ethiopian children
Abraham Zegeye of Lower Nazareth established a school in his father’s native village. Last year, Lehigh Valley businessman Abraham Zegeye started raising money to build a school in his father’s native village in Ethiopia.
How does a revolutionary prospect replace capitalism without modification to the theories of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism in the world?
How does both the Marxist and capitalist philosophical crisis get stimulus from the each other? (6 of 10)
In all ancient civilizations, the expeditions of the kings with army contingents and supply for winning the other’s territories were the main activity of the kings who want to survive in their kingdoms as well as feeding the mighty warrior class (under their conditions) for some years together in this kind of business.
This tendency was in continuation from the ancient kingdoms of the Ethiopians, Egyptians, Babylonians, Israelis, Greeks, Romans, Asians, Indians, Acadians, Romans, Europeans, British, Germans, Italians, Russians and Americans. This kind of winning territories of others could be treated as royal sport from ancient period to the present invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, on different names and on different justifications as a usual activity of the kings from the time of human settlements in the river areas of African, Iraq, and Egyptian, Israeli and Indus civilizations through the little or strong contingent of army what we name to it army of the kings engaged in expeditions and making his army men to settle there in the local populations in their every expedition.
And it is the common rule for all those who are and were in such posts or in such positions to fulfill the needs of the people of the specified territories in the world. No state is exempted in its earliest ancient history. But after World War 2 Two states were in such play of winning territories in the presence of their forces by elevating the local and comfortable leader as a king’ during the cold war times. The royal or capitalist or the slave state’s role in state and as its affair was and it to wage war for its people basing upon its resources and its needs. It means it is wrong to say that the capitalist societies are and were only waged wars against the other poor and weak states in the history of the past.
The roman empires rise and decline is the finest example in the history of the state in the world civilizations. British Empire which was once in rise through the widening of its territories in the Europe, Asia, and in America and after some time of its rule over the area where the no sun set was known to its people began to decline rapidly and now confined to its very little territory. The laws of invasions and sanctions of the waging wars against any state for protection of the other state in the global context are vested in the hands of United Nations and in its security council but territorial status quo are continuing after the defeat of the fascist forces in the ww2.
The word imperialism had widely become known in last nineteenth and twentieth centuries by sensing the rise of competition for the world markets and colonies to sell their surplus foods as the latest term and trend of the capitalism in the map of the world market and its economy. In this regard, john Hobson in his writings he high lighted the characteristics of the imperialism and in later time the great revolutionary leader v. I. Lenin wrote his famous theory on imperialism as” Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism” and published in 1917. in essence, the true sense with meaning of plundering the other state’s and erasing the boundaries in all ancient, medieval and in modern form of state in all the two social and economic phases from African to modern Chinese have made a common interest in their self and their territorial integrity and peace in their respective states that could serve at least two essential purposes of fulfilling the needs and requirements of their states by directly plundering other’s assets and wealth along with men and women in medieval centuries and in modern world and on the results of the capitalist states essentially and unavoidably these states needed the colonies and markets.
Consequently they pushed out from the edge of its own states due to the terms of the market and its consequential inability of survival. Only development we can see in such expansionism in the capitalist societies and its leader state had to oblige the needs and requirements of their own markets and the products of their people to see for its sale in the global areas for their survival in these progressive capitalism too in all most all states, within the meaning of the capitalist states, otherwise, it could not applicable to them. For example in India just two decades ago which is in the list of the developing states in the world, and now also in the same list it climbed up to some high level in the global scale.
Moreover, it has been extended its markets into many other states including in United States, Canada, and in the Great Britain where the Indian corporate leaders have contributed to economy these states, besides, srilanka, Nepal, and other small states in few sectors. In exact sense India is in the list of the imperialist states and no wonder if it is emerges in next four decades to the position of third or fourth in the list of the developed states in the world. It is not possible to change the name of an individual Edmund Burk, according to his age, when he was five years, Edmund Burk, five years old, when he attain twenty years old, we could not call Mr. Edmund Burk, twenty years old and when he crossed forty years, we could not call him Edmund Burk , forty years old. Like wise it is not possible and also not correct and scientific way to understand any individual through his age and on his growth.
At the same time the human nature is global and it could not be confined to any limits on any individual in the world just because he is different from the family of animals. In addition he had the power of thinking, understanding, following, leading and discovering. Moreover he created his own food and lives on it on his own unlike animals. At the same time, the states with its economic potentiality, and nature of the economy under the leadership of human leadership which, could determine its destination in any way as has been already proved in the case of soviet Russia and in the case of Israel too. Russia which was liberated in 1917 and at the time of ww2 and in later period it was emerged to the highest level in the world. And soviet Russia took a lead role in the global politics against the United States, though it has been called and regarded ad the socialist colonial and expansionist state by the Chinese leadership in the context of the Joseph Stalin and Mao, due to the economic conditions of the state even under the leadership of the Stalin. It proved that the concept of the state whatever it may have religious, secular, democratic, Islamic, Christian, Hinduism, Buddhist, or Hebrew on one side. On the other side either revolutionary or fascist whatever the state contain the cover and tag to it, it would never give different results, but it makes only little difference in the collection of the tributes from other states and through imposition of higher taxes on different name upon its own people.
The functioning style of the state, has gained through its prioritized issues on its domestic affairs and developed to such a stage that would never be cased damage to its basic structure completely but a small jerks and blows would never stand in opposite to its alternative positions within itself unless such structures in any state could not succeed in the world. the united states, itself is the case, the global media and al most all political parties are claimed in high voices that the recession in the united states in high in more than the level of the great depression of nineteen thirties in last century, but it now appeared it is recovering from its crisis temporarily for a while, because the state would never make all the things in the society and the people are responsible to all such economic down falls. They are much lazy in preparing their own food in their homes, as an indication of the depending habits on others for all the ready made foods there. The Chinese food upon which they are depending and getting the daily packs from the ready made stores for their daily foods from china due to only laziness in preparing their own food for their own. No wonder if, Chinese people take lead over United States in coming three to four decades in all the ways and its economy would be made dependent on them.
The super power, with its global alliances in the interest of few states on any name they would wage wars by getting sanction of the United Nations against any state for its resources for which no one would dare to stop them from such moves against the super power and against its global alliances. The cold war between the United States, and u.s.s.r for some time gave the assurance to poor and weak states for their security and protection. In the absence of the alternative force against the United States and its alliances made them to move forward on their will like a business of plundering the natural resources of the mid-east and Afghanistan.
In the democratic form of government, the dual party system always proved beneficial to check the powers of the government which could be checked in any undesirable action by the strong opposition party in any country. In every political system there is always an opposition is needed to check the power to save the people from the misuse of the people’s aspirations. Now the world is in only one’s hand, and its capitalism, is widening into every space of the every system, and moving further to replace with its new formulations in its laws of the working relations. After emergence of IT sector, the Indian working hours are disappeared from the lives of the young in India. They used to attend the corporate office in the Indian night shifts. Consequently new food habits, new friendships, new tastes in associating with the others in their friends’ circle, new residential areas, new needs and new life are emerged to them in a new way which made us to look these guys in the new covers with new tags in the outlets of the global corporate markets in the Indian society.
I do not object all this newness in the Indian society, but it is fateful that they immediately returned back to old packs and to the tags again. I saw many who flourished so such a high through the little and small period of education in earning to the new heights have lost their smiles within five to seven years of the period, during which they were taken lakhs of rupees as loans from banks on the flats, now turned back to the position that they did not expect in their lives. The bankers got back their all those from them on the inability of the repayments to them. They looks like that they lost the smiles forever in their faces.
Many those who do not know the economic laws of the market and on the society where the state had been emerged to the role of “market leadership” through its treasure and power in balancing the economy for a while with little subsidies, thought to desist the other traditional business sources and academic education other than the studying the IT only. The chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, Sri Nara Chandra Babu Naidu, now he is ex-chief minister asked the people leave the agricultural field and adopt the IT field permanently. Now the position is changed again and the people began to understand that the permanent market for any thing is not possible all the way to depend and believe.
It was also very strange to understand the role of communist parties in India which were demanded the state and government of India to use the machines in the constructions and other governmental works in the water, roads, drainage, in bridges, and in all such major and minor works on the ground of the machines reduces manual labor and the labor in India could not live without work. The social changes with the speed of scientific advancements no one would ever be stopped either by the state or by the political parties on any name and in one’s interests. Like wise it is not avoided but it is continuing so heavily because of time limit agreements with the private corporate contractors at the high level bidding system at state and central level in India.
The state in its nature, it is filled with the human beings in an open and frank estimation about the role of humans in every sphere of the state to continue the duties on the assigned task with specific rules. In other words, the sphere of the state which is the cover only, in which all the human beings would resume their duties according to its laws under specified terms. Moreover it is not a mindless and heartless machine in the society but it the power tag and the cover and permanent in nature. That is why the British saying is” king died, long live the king”. It indicates the king who is dead in general but the post of the king should live. Hence the role of the king is permanent and the king by who is a human being normally dies like a common human being. On only this reason the people in the society looks at the seat of the king and the seats of such permanence in nature for their guaranteed and assured lives. And almost the concept of the people in such fields is proved successful since its inception to the present form of the presents and prime ministers in the global states.
And the state has become the rich and very much potential like an agency filled by the humans in which two types of people share it and gains control over the state and central treasure on the people in general and it is the real asset of those who are near and closest to those are in power would play the lead role in discharging the duties of the state. The elected representatives and the bureaucracy in every level from the gram panchayat to parliament which are empowered to take certain decisions within the limits of the rules and utilize the grants sanctioned by government and the government at state and central level which are elected by the voters through the elections.
Here the question is that these posts from the attendant to the parliamentary affairs of the government of India in Indian parliament to the health worker of the gram panchayat level are all human beings. And they are the global in nature but local in practical level. If the Sarpanch of any gram panchayat who’s nature as a human and his financial condition directs him to keep him in his limits and he himself confines to the same gram panchayat only. But his global ideological nature would never be calculated from the point of the position of the gram panchayat level. In United States many Indians occupy highest positions in the government affairs. In the success stories of many individuals in India, we listen and read about those once worked as the sales man of the soaps carrying the bag to the handle of his bicycle, now reached in the list of top hundred in the Indian list of the richest. Not only one the case, but many in hundreds or even more in such a level they earned much more that what they could not even see such huge amounts in the open way of market and through the state.
The system of capitalism is mixed with the private, and global and state with each one’s effects up on each. In essence, the state including its organs, executive, legislative, judiciary and it’s fourth (estate) media both print and electronic does not generate directly any income to the treasury of all these branches, but all these are depended upon all these branches. The state with its all organs will get the taxes, royalties, rents, interest, both in direct and indirect form, gets service charges, if I say in depth, banking, railways, bsnl, and roads all the income in the form income ,comes to the state’s treasuries. In its major role in the market the state has been emerged to the highest position like a corporate body in the terms of capital only.
On the whole, in the market of Indian society, the commodities level, its level in generating the commodities could never be seen as a producer to the needy, market of the producers. But in the other way of the service sector, it is proved as a giant in bsnl, oil companies, railways, other public sector companies and corporations. In this field the public sector companies list, the direst one department was opened to sell all the companies with its assets to the private companies in open action, what it they called it “disinvestment” in the past and it is not now in that much of rise in the past under the nda government in India.
The share of the government of India and all state governments may occupy the least share on the over all market value of all commodities of the people in the Indian market and the same formula could be applied to every state, including United States. In essence the open market of India for all the essential commodities in which the value and share of the state (in common word) both central and states occupies in decimals only, but not in percentage. Consequently the heavy establishments of the state and its all organs would never contribute to the people directly by producing the essential or commercial commodities for the cost at least to resume a social role in the Indian political society. State has no role to produce any commodity to the market as a producer of the commodities exempting the services in the field of service sector.
Hence the state is entirely belonged to the category of non-productive field and the role of the forth estate, is authorized by the state to sell their new
Papers and their television news and current affairs channels only. While in assessing the needs of the very lower level and below poverty line people, common category, lower middle, middle of the middle, upper middle of the middle, rich, top hundred in every state, and finally one thousand of the Indian and only hundred in Indian level with covering the global level list of top hundred. It is the list of ten categories of the Indian people and its market economy only calculated by avoiding the foreign market commodities in Indian markets.
In the broad sense, the people whose immediate needs could be identified as essential one despite considering the mind on the expenditure on other than needy ones in daily and routine life in India. In the list of food, shelter, clothes, these are in the list of compulsory. The next need comes into the list is entertainment, cosmetics, transportation, education, and communication. The luxuries are in the next list of lower middle class. And it goes up to the global level according to the privileged level and their lives are more or less comfortable with their passions, thoughts and aspirations. This section has every way live on its own way for them and they have been allowed by the every social, economical and political sanction in Indian society as well as in other states too.
No country’s( the term, state’s within the meaning of its territories of the time only) history is exempted from such activity of expansionism during the period of the slavery, to the present status of permanent capitalism which has many shock absorbers in its own adjustments for its survival with lead for continuation in the world. During the time of slavery, the king’s duty was to wage the wars and win the territory, with protection of the people on low level tax impositions. While in emergence of the new sections from the society to lead it into a new form of feudal form the war rules were emerged in the attacks. Sparing, women, children, and aged in attacks. Status level attack was in practice and the no lower level of the army commander allowed attacking his higher level army man. No night attacks were allowed against each other. All such laws were come into force from the change of time and development of the social laws in the states. No uniform laws were implemented.
The role of invasions generated from the royal necessity as well as the need of the society to which the state was responsible and the kingdoms were surrounded by the strong walls as city areas and the royal palaces were built under the protection of the hilly and rock areas guarded army. In ancient, slave feudal, and capitalist societies, the role of the lead of both society and state, including productive and non-productive forces were moving jointly hand-in hand with other, simply avoiding the working in the productive field and playing a leading role in non-productive role of human beings indicate the way of their thinking and confirm that they want to live in such a way what they wanted through which they would attain maximum gain and fame with their identification among other members.
At the same time the collection of the taxes, temple affairs, and other tributary wealth in royal treasures (till the time of coins and currency) on one side, on the other side in the society, the people those who were not associated with the rural artisan works attracted by the king’s affairs and contributed a lot to the royal treasure with wealth through the inactions and plunder. These two factors in the society led the mighty and courageous to lead their lives towards royal adventures of the war and resuming the role the God whose duties were to fulfill the dreams of the people with protection of their lives and the lord of the justice. In the sense of every body in society, whether he is working for the purpose society and for the king or not, is only important and essential one for anybody in the society. But it is not his duty to think that the work only in the productive field is compulsory or necessary but everybody thinks that he is working for the subjects of the kind or its related fields only. In essence the justifying authority of the work in either productive or non-productive is not important for him, but it is only important that whether he is working from morning to evening at certain place for the specified period in a week or in month was important for everybody.
This principle is the leading force and the driving source in all the societies from community based lives of the humans to the present lives of the multi-national company’s plastic waste management daily labor. The business opportunities creation and management in every time was and is the need of getting the people more and more into its fold and offers the wage plan to those who wanted to offer themselves to work on the terms of the employers only. And the freeness in selection of the works and the skills for it was made essentials to suit to the claim.
The choice of working on the conditions of the employers was not made compulsory in every time except during the slave system of the Egyptian pharaohs’ period. Before Egyptians there were many claims over the transforming and emerging to the state of ruling in the darkness and mysteries of the period at the African region where the human origin and its traces are well known through their transitional periods of humans either in the biblical sources and other than biblical resources confirming about the human settlements which ware and are to be found out through some more inventions about the historical developments in the human society.
The passage of the human society through the developments in every sphere into newness with the feasibility of its fitness permanently for further developments on the basis of wide range of its acceptance in the society as a precondition for every newness in every advanced and development in such every sphere including productive and non-productive forces. So that it is necessary to find further about the way of developments within the sphere of every field from ancient societies to the present state of capitalism. We know the slave society had been come into force in Egypt first we all are aware it but the other factors in the same societies could not be easily understood without going through the complete details of the system of the pharaohs in Egyptian and Ethiopian societies in ancient times.
Once again we go back to the point where from we moved to all these detailed discussions. Ethiopian settlements which could be considered as a source of the developments in the civilization for the transformation of humans from the forests and caves to the settlements and could be developed further to the stage of the slave societies in the history of the civilizations in the world. And its middle period of the community level lives to the level of slavery in the societies would be identified in the interest of linking the complete period of transitions from time to time to present the subject in complete form. Outer side of the inventions and archaeology is based on the biblical evidences which could indicate like a signboards to reach the destination of finding the factors still essential ones to affirm all these were the players in leading the society into its own form with its pace. However, widening opportunities from within each of the productive and non-productive fields were primarily depended upon the development of knowledge both in productive and in non-productive fields. The invention of iron, copper, and other metals were used in the field of army as well in the domestic services.
The division of Israel was happened in 926bc (in one account and do not correspond the year for the claim of occurrence in such a year), and continued till the year of 721 b c with the two wars between Rehoboam and Jeroboam. In 721 B.C the northern area of Israel which was under the rule of Rehoboam was attacked and conquered by the Assyrian king. The ten tribes of Israelis out of twelve were under the control of Judah kingdom under rehoboam were started by driving out by the Assyrians and other people belonged to the rule of Assyrians at that time.
The reasons were mostly stated to be the driven by the faith of Judaism up on which mostly from the period from Saul to Solomon continued and the major difference between the two kings were stated that those who were successful have been led by the opinions of the elders who always asked the kings to follow the faith what they believe to follow in their lives. The most important thing for the people of at hat time was the security of the people from the attacks of the neighbor states and from their kings who were driven by the zeal of the faiths.
The Israel state was directly emerged from the out side of its place where it had developed through the exodus of the Moses’ leadership and his contribution in forming the state on the basis of religion based on the emancipation of the slaves from their slavery. The people were in belief that the new king Rahoboam would cause some relief from their yoke what his father Solomon imposed on them. On the day of meeting with the king they expressed such hope from the king but he harshly replies even more he would cause them burden with his orders.
The argument is here between the people and the king as “‘Your father put a heavy yoke on us, but make our yoke lighter’—tell them, ‘My little finger is thicker than my father’s waist. 11 My father laid on you a heavy yoke; I will make it even heavier. My father scourged you with whips; I will scourge you with scorpions.’ On the reply from the king the people returned to their homes at that moment. The king sent the in charge of forced labor, Adoniram, but he stoned to death by the people and the king escaped from them and escaped to Jerusalem in chariot and the same day the rebellion against the house of David too taken place.
The king was never heard the people who wanted to present their plight were received such reply they began to move out from there, in later times her son, brother of rehoboam was descended the throne after the reign of seventeen years. The reasons behind the rebellion of the people against their king could be seen in at least in forms. Of them one was the burden they have been bearing increase day by day from the period of King David to rehoboam who was proved cruel and harsh against the people and the people whose faith was based on the Judaism at that time as they found comfort under the control of the lord directly.
The mighty warriors of one hundred and eighty thousand who were under the control of the elders, continuing from the time of Solomon in that society at that time, as one of the three reasons behind the revolt against the king. All these three factors were led them towards the king and complete rebellion against the Jerusalem. On the other side, jeroboam, whose ties and relations with the Egyptian king while, living at Egypt from the period of Solomon who wanted to kill him made easy to cause the feeling of the people of both side of the Israel invited the invasion of the Egyptian king against rehoboam, during the fifth year of his reign. The strong elderly support which was once in the favor of the king turned from him to stand on their own against the real causes of the people was to be treated the key point in the rebellions by maintaining the strong mighty men as their force in well coordinated manner, at that time.
All these factors led them to turn against the king. In that society at that time the social elders, temple in charges, military in charges, forced labor in charges, tax collectors, and other governmental in charges kings’ palace men all such fields were already taken strong shape of the posts were emerged and developed as permanent sources for those who were in eager to fill with the individuals and had become strong to allure the people from the society to fill with the individuals. The state was already in fullest form.
In the fifth year of Rehoboam, shishak, the king of Egypt attacked Jerusalem, and took away all the shields of the gold prepared and preserved by King Solomon. The gold from the royal palace of the king was also not spared in plundering the Jerusalem, Rehoboam, had replaced already the golden shields from the temple with bronze which led the Egypt king to plunder the royal palaces.
The gold and precious ornaments were concentrated in the temples and the royal palaces, so that the plundering the neighboring states were one of the reasons of motivations for attacks. Before this attack on Jerusalem temple it is claimed that prior to this attack at least two more arracks were recorded on the different accounts on the dates, but a little information is available about the two attacks. In the year 1425 b. c a small seize was carried out by the Israeli people on Jerusalem and another one is claimed that it was taken in the year of 1046 b. c by David against Jobsites (2Samuel 5:6-10; 1Chronicles 12:23-39). Moreover, hundreds of wives and royal concubine from the time of King David continued to till this time of attack.
On the subject of belief of that time in the society and in the minds of the royal circles and in families also were motivated to attack the other states as a matter of gaining support of the majority people of the societies as a pre condition of social sanctions on the acts of the kings in the history. The king of Judah, Rehoboam, and the Israeli king jeroboam were continued their wars against each other for upper hand over one another was the main cause of the wars between these two countries. Jeroboam was the self styled and the most charismatic servant of the Solomon at that time when he was alive and had been attracted by the Solomon himself in the work of constructions what he was assigned to him. Moreover he developed his relations with Egyptian king while staying at his kingdom for the entire period of the life of Solomon.
There is no specific contributions were seen during the period of Rehoboam. His name would never be saved from the curse of Judah and Israeli history for splitting the state into two parts quite against the spirit of the Moses, the lord of the Judaism. At last he died and buried in the same place of city of David his mother, who was known as naamah, an ammonite, his son, Abhija, succeeded as the king of Judah.
The king of Egypt, shishak, whose army contained 1200 chariots, 60000 horsemen, and number of troops from the different nationalities such as Libyans, sukkites, kusshites, were under his command, so that the expedition carried out against Judah. The utilization of ‘chariots’ in the army is in a question on the account of time line with the rig Vedic narration on the chariots in Indian wars of epic age. And the king satisfied with the booty by the Israelis’ another king, jeroboam. Shishak’s campaign of plundering in the year of 925 b. c could prove how the temple of Solomon was, on giving 383 tones of gold and silver to the Egyptian temples by the son of shashak after his death.
The focus of the developments and the centre of the decisions were changed from the kingdoms of both Judah and Israeli to the Egyptian pharaoh’s dynasties at that time. So it is primarily important to check the link of the pharaohs dynasties of Egyptian mythology to the reality of the kingdoms could be checked and the similarities of the gods and Indian gods in the thinking of the spirituality of the people could be compared with a view to find the exact point of derivation about the feelings of such gods with the replacements of the ideologies of the people in their minds could be measured by the newly formed ideas of religions at that time and after the Moses religion of old testament as well as new the conditions of the societies at the time of Jesus Christ’s Birth and his death.
The history of Egyptian pharaohs and their conspiracies, killings, deaths, of each other in the entire kings’ dynasties were almost similar with remaining other world history of the kings for the power. The name in the list of the kings the first is Manes (3100 b c e to 3038 b c e) though many may differ about it to confirm but all should agree about his real existence in human form and he ruled sixty two years and known to the people as he was united the lower and upper Egypt as a first pharaoh in the pharaoh’s dynasties in the Egyptian history.
Many dynasties were named in the entire history of Egypt, including divine deities which could be more than thirty in number and their names could be more than one hundred and seventy. Manes the king as the first in uniting the upper and lower areas into one dynasty, and he could never be negligible in identifying with the expedition of the nimrod who invaded Egypt according the Osiris whose name in the genesis and began his career in Mesopotamia. He belonged to the Kush area and it is in African region. His expedition point could be Kush of African region and expanded from there to Mesopotamia to Egypt and known as the first king of the Egyptian dynasties in ancient Egyptian period. For some reason for following the link of the dynasties of that pre-biblical and biblical periods the origin leads to the African region in which the human origins were taken place in the all the way either Darwinian concept of evolutionary theory of the human, or of the biblical belief behind origin of the human beings.
One more prime contender in this filed in claiming the origins and traces of the humans is Indian mythology and its latest findings of the right wing Hinduism(which is very different from the common opinion on religion. Hinduism is a bunch of hundreds of castes under one roof of the Hinduism in India and the origin of the castes in the common context also differed from other common origins of the castes of other religions like Hebrew, Christian and Islam in its respective religions in the world) forces who are trying very much to link up the proto-history of the origin and traces of human beings. Because the reversal theory of the Aryan invasion is very much supportive for its claim through the horse plays of dr. raja ram in recent years. If he fulfills the theoretical arguments on his finding further more, every one should accept it without any hesitation and biases on the basis of religious beliefs and faiths. Gods, kings and demigods in the Egyptian spirituality, the existence of the demigods could be identified with the popular saying with the genesis and with other evidences out of biblical supports there. For example, the statues of Mahatma Gandhi, Subhas Chandra Bose, Dr. B R Ambedkar, Jawarlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Jagjivan Ram, Rajiv Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, and few other leaders, would be worshipped and treated as gods by the coming generations, if their history with time line could not be written on their plaques to avoid the misunderstandings about them in future. It is something like a case in the absence of the evidences about the written history about the first king whose origin and starting point for the invasion of the Babylonian, and Egyptian territories, was Kush area of African region. At the same time, the blank period in prehistory in the Indian subjects like castes and on its origins I discuss in detail in next article.
The identification of the Kush region is known to the modern world is Ethiopia which was first in the African civilizations in the world. It is not the word of Hindu Kush of Hindu slaughter of the 10th century A.D of the medieval history. The Egyptian religious practices were directly influenced by the Ethiopian beliefs which were more about the gods than the kings and the traces and origin of the conquests of the Babylonians kings and their lists are indicating that their ancient gods in the mythological and real gods list in which who stood first was the king whose origin is found in Egyptians kings and his expedition point was from the Ethiopian territory of kush.
The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, who was lived in first century B.C, supported the claim of confirming about the origin of the Osiris who was the conqueror of the Egypt. In essence the Egyptian customs and their way of life prior to the invasion of the Egyptians in their main lands, the Ethiopians driven out the Egyptians from their colonies. At the same time the Egyptians were habituated the original practices of the Egyptians in the burials and in the habits of worshipping the god-kings in their lives. And the priest class was the main source in resuming such practices in the lives of the Ethiopians prior to the Egyptians gods. So that both Egyptians and Ethiopians had the similar practices in their customs and burials there in the entire region.
The Indian mythology is something different from its burial practices and in food habits at that time. But the commonality on the priest class in India played direct role in molding the minds of the people at the composition period of rig Veda. Mummification of the Egyptian kings and nobles were directly influenced by the Ethiopians and prior to the conquests of the other territories by the Babylonian kings, there were the Ethiopian kings in the history of the kings in the world till now. Indians or even more remote period of the history of the civilizations, in the persuasion of origin and traces of the first kings’ history, any claim from the Ethiopians or other biblical kings’ states for the first state and for its first king in the world history, this opinion would be changed.
The evidence for such claim of the rule of Ethiopians over the Egypt which was stated to be more than three thousand years could be noted through the writings of the priest and Egyptian historian of the third century, b .c, named Manetho whose list of kings although not acceptable on the ground of myths and his mythological claiming over the period of gods in the regions in years to gather. The following view is supportive for the claim of first king as Osiris of this region and the biblical reference of the king, Nimod, both are supportive in finding the fist in the list of the kings in these entire region including Babylonians, Egyptians, and Ethiopians In the ancient history.” After the dead and the demigods comes the First Dynasty, with 8 kings of whom Menes was the first. He was an excellent leader. In what follows are recorded the rulers from all of the ruling houses in succession. Dynasty One, 1st King – Menes of Thinis, whom Herodotus calls Men, and his 7 descendents. He ruled 62 years. He led the army across the frontier and won great glory. He was killed by a hippopotamus'”
Hence the first king of the Egyptian dynasty to which he was the first and invaded the Egypt. His dynasty had five kings in this region. He had been killed by hippopotamus. In an account Narmer Aha Dier, Diet, Den and queen Memeith were the kings of the Egypt. It is still not clear about the two names, narmer, and manes that are claimed to be the names of one king. (To be continued in 7 of 10)
Arch Bonnema – Christian Entrepreneur and Philanthropist
By Julie Lyons
Arch Bonnema’s mission couldn’t be plainer. It encircles the towering ceiling of his McKinney home, inscribed in gold letters: “Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distressâ€¦”
Though Bonnema, 56, has launched several successful businesses and played an important role in the early success of the filmÂ The Passion of the Christâ€”he purchased all of the seats in Plano’s Cinemark Tinseltown 20 for opening day, and gave away the 6,000 ticketsâ€”orphan homes are the focus of his time and money today. Since 1991, he and his wife, Sherry, have tithed a minimum of 50 percent of their finances and work hours to missions, including their own ministry, My House.
They’ve partnered with longstanding local ministries in Uganda, Kenya, India, and Ethiopia to build orphan homes centered around churches and to staff them with widows, explicitly following the words of James 1:27 etched inside his home.
The decision to give on such a scale came 17 years ago after he and his wife attended a missions conference. They were driving home from Georgia on Bonnema’s motorcycle, communicating by helmet-mounted radios. “We’d been silent for quite a while,” Arch says, “and I said, â€˜You know, honey, I have to admit I’ve been kinda feeling lately that we ought to increase our commitment from 35 to 50 percent.’
“I hardly got done saying that, and she says, â€˜God’s been telling me that for months. I was just waiting for you to confirm it with me.'”
Bonnema’s response echoes what many Christians have believed in recent yearsâ€”only to find their fortunes shrink drastically during the recession. “The whole time you’re thinking, â€˜Wowâ€”God is gonna really bless us now.’ But it doesn’t always work that way. If you give, God doesn’t always give back right away. That’s what the prosperity message got wrong.
“There were times when my wife and I gave significantly and went through the biggest hardships, but we kept on giving. We still survived. It might have been a year or two later, but God gave us a tremendous blessing.”
In Arch’s and Sherry’s case, their decision to tithe lavishly was followed by the loss of their savings and other assetsâ€”just about everything but their home. They even sold their last car, a two-year-old Cadillac, so they could keep the pledges they’d made to ministries. “We gave everything we had, including cashing in our retirement, to make sure that our promises to missions were fulfilled,” Arch says. “It’s not that my business dropped off, but I spent less time doing it, and my income droppedâ€”while my giving increased, percentage-wise. No problem, we thought. We’ll just sell this. We don’t need that anyway. It’s more important we fulfill our commitment to God.
“It wasn’t until we had given away pretty much everything we had over a span of six years when, all of a sudden, everything just reversed faster. God started building my businesses faster than I ever could have imagined. Within two years I had more money than I ever had in my whole life.”
Today, Arch has set aside Joshua Financial, the trust company from which he prospered for many yearsâ€”changing tax laws eliminated much of the business–to invest in enterprises such as the buying and re-selling of electricity and hydrogen technology. Bonnema has also launched expeditions to search for Noah’s Ark and the Ark of the Covenant. Arch joins in business with “kindred spirits,” Christian entrepreneurs with a passion for missions and ministry.
“You want to have people surrounding you who are like-minded,” he says. “There’s an old saying, â€˜It’s not what you know; it’s who you know.’ But I think there is a more correct saying: It’s who knowsÂ you. What is your reputation? If you develop a good track record, they come find you.”
Bonnema applies the same principle to building orphan homes. He works only with ministries that have worked with orphans for years on their own, “doing a really good job.” My House builds new and better facilities so the ministries can expand their work. The goal, he says, is that the orphan home is independent of outside aid within three or four years. “Once we build it,” he says, “we give it to them.”
Right now, My House sponsors four orphan homes in India, two in Ethiopia, one in Kenya, and one in Uganda, all in rural areas. Four other orphan homes are under construction; the Bonnemas hope to build 10 in 2010. Over the years, My House has encountered its share of scammersâ€””just people who want money,” Bonnema says. “It’s just as bad in the U.S. as it is over there.” Bonnema has developed a mottoâ€””We inspect what we expect.” My House personnel are on the ground talking to people before the organization builds, checking out the credentials of local ministries and talking to pastors, mayors, and community leaders. “We make sure they have a good reputation for taking care of kids,” he says.
Bonnema’s passion for orphans has unlikely roots in the Minnesota farming community of Prinsburg, population 450, where he grew up. His grandfather, a farmer for many years and later “a very successful businessman,” entertained a constant stream of visitors from overseasâ€”missionaries and pastors, to whom he gave much of his money. “He felt the best gift he had was he knew how to do good business. He knew about the world, because everybody came to visit him. He was very generous. They were expecting to see some big tycoon, but he had a very modest house. He lived in a very small town. He just gave away an enormous amount.”
Faith pervaded the Bonnema family, which prayed and read Scripture at every meal, three times a day, and attended the Christian Reformed church together. “I grew up in a family where all my relatives were strong, committed Christians,” says Bonnema, now a member of Prestonwood Baptist Church. “When I reached an age of understanding, at 7 or 8, I committed my life to Christ.”
At 19, Bonnema walked around the world with a backpack and sleeping bag, traversing remote and war-torn countries, including Vietnam. He visited Israel in 1973, right after it went to war with Egypt. In Bombay, India, he got so sick he prayed to die. In Hong Kong he started a Youth for Christ chapter that still exists today. Throughout his journey, he learned to “rely on God” in everything.
“James chapter 1 says if your life is full of difficulties and temptations, be happy,” Bonnema says. “I remember reading that when I was 16, thinking, boy, did they ever mistranslate this. How can you be happy when life is full of difficulties and temptations? Because you learn to trust God. That’s when you really build your faith.”
Crossing the world with little money or status allowed him to see reality in the countries he visited, where no one was trying to impress him. He avoided the big cities and wandered through rural areas, “where you really see the people.” He witnessed poverty and oppression, degradation and violence. As well as people with few possessions who took inexplicable joy in their love for God.
“That’s where my heart was first touched by the orphans and widows,” he says. “I saw a different world than the one I lived in. It did two things: It tremendously increased my passion for ministry. I saw how easy it is to change lives, compared to the U.S. When you see how easy it is to make a difference, it makes you want to do more.
“And it really opened my eyes so that I’m a good steward. It’s not about just writing a check. It’s like the parable of the good seeds. It’s giving to the right place at the right time.”
Over the years, Bonnema has visited 93 countries, all but one with his wife. That one country was Iran, where he believes his team found the petrified remains of Noah’s Ark in 2006. He’s also witnessed first-hand the world’s problem with orphans; according to the World Health Organization, the number of orphans has doubled in the last five years, and only one-tenth of one percent are ever adopted. Yet more than 90 percent of the money spent on orphans is directed to the adoption process.
A Kenyan bishop who visited him recently represented the alternative that My House seeks: He described how he could build an orphan home housing a dozen children as well as a widow to take care of them for as little as $20,000. The facility would include separate rooms for boys and girls as well as a kitchen and bathroom.
“What’s interesting is for centuries, that’s what the church did. We took care of orphans and widows,” Bonnema says. “Now, we let the government do it.”
When my mother is driving me nuts fussing over the little stuff, I completely forget how great she is and I know you do the same. But don’t let that feeling stop you from giving her a perfect Mother’s Day this year; we’ve got a complete guide with everything you need to get ready for each of the four classic mom types.
If you do it right, she’ll forget about the missing presents, late phone calls and the times you spent the day with your ex’s family.
Your mom is like Martha Stewart: She is a do-it-all Mom with luxurious tastes, from designer shoes to sipping fine wines.
Mother’s Day gift: Buy her a weekend at cooking school, a luxury spa visit or a weekend away at a bed and breakfast (near a vineyard with wine tours of course).
Shower her with flowers: Find a beautiful new shrub for her garden or a bouquet of heirloom roses.
The perfect lunch: Since she’s probably picky you may want to ask her advice. If it’s up to you, a Restaurantica http://www.restaurantica.com search for fine dining in your city will turn up a classy lunch spot featuring the crème de la crème of her favorite cuisine.
Afternoon activity: After the meal you could visit a local art museum, specialty food boutiques or an exclusive theatre event.
Your mom is like Mrs. Cleaver: she makes tasty casseroles, wears Mom jeans and is always supportive.
Mother’s Day gift: A new stove, cookware, a year’s subscription to O Magazine, or even hiring a landscaper or cleaner to help her for a few weeks are sweet ideas. Your mom will probably be just as happy with a cake you baked or a beautiful card with a handwritten note, filled with earnest thanks that your mother is the woman that she is.
Shower her with flowers: Pick some fresh tulips from your own garden to give her, or splash out on mums for your Mom.
The perfect lunch: Go to the much-loved place that your family always votes her down from; the one you wouldn’t be seen dead in. If you can’t think of her favorite restaurant, a tasty classic brunch always does the trick.
Afternoon activity: A play at a local theatre, your kids’ soccer game, or for a well deserved pedicure (her first in years).
Your Mom is like Jane Goodall: she’s an animal lover who taught you to recycle before you could walk (and still doesn’t dye her hair or wear makeup).
Mother’s Day gift: A one-day retreat for two at a nearby yoga center, or a gift that helps her favorite charity. Or indulge a hobby, with gardening clogs and some great new tools.
Shower her with flowers: Think about a potted plant or even seedlings if she has a green thumb; but if her home can’t keep anything alive, gather some fresh wildflowers from the side of the road (or an organic market). Lady’s slippers and dogwood make an interesting display.
The perfect lunch: She’ll love a restaurant with organic and local ingredients, or trying out an ethnic cuisine she’s never tasted. Get inspired reading reviews and searching for places like Ethiopian, Vietnamese, Croatian, or Estonian restaurants.
Afternoon activity: Relax watching a film about nature at an IMAX theatre, or get moving with a nice stroll in the park or canoeing on the lake.
Your Mom is a modern – day Claire Huxtable: she’s a heroine in the corporate realm, saving the world with her techie tools.
Mother’s Day gift: A new GPS navigation system, the MacBook Air, or trendy accessories (like a laptop bag that she can keep all her toys in).
Shower her with flowers: Think outside the box with birds of paradise or a beautiful bonsai – either will be stunning in her office.
The perfect lunch: Grab her attention at a place with cutting edge aesthetics. Tasting plates or tapas will fill her need for variety, and they usually come out at the frenetic speed she lives in.
Afternoon activity: Sign up for a charity race together, or attend a conference based on a mutual interest – anything goes with this mom, as long as she doesn’t have to slow down.
She’ll tell you for weeks that it’s the thought that counts, until her face drops when you show up with loving thoughts in lieu of a gift and lunch reservations. For maximum results, plan ahead, and take care of the details; all of a sudden you’ll have given your Mom the most phenomenal day she can dream of.
Mother’s Day is the busiest day to eat out all year; so find the perfect spot and everything you need for your reservation on Restaurantica http://www.restaurantica.com.
Ethiopian lady I fell in Love with in bahrain?
I have a ethiopian girlfriend now for almost 2 years an she is completely against oral sex, i dont understand why if its a culture difference or what because me and her are serious and plan to marriage, and on top of that she said i can see other lady for that just as long as i dont have sex with them and that shocked me i said no way if i am married and even as bf & gf i would not do such a thing thats adultery.
I am from Jamaica originally but grew up in america, and cheating on a person when your married regardless if your wife gives you consent is adultery smart guy. Also she is not muslim.
Why interracial relationships are too popular in America
Inter racial relationships and marriages have taken a steady leap in numbers during the twenty first century in the United States of America. It is true that such inter racial relationships has gained immense popularity in America than in any other nations be it Asians and Whites, Blacks and Hispanics or others.
There are several Americans who believe that Inter racial relationships should be banned since it destroys the cultures of two races and also brings problem to their siblings. However the young America has something different to say about this issue.
Most Americans believe that in any case, such relationships make it easier for the fusion and integration between the ethnic and racial groups. They also feel that these differences are in fact artificial and are built up by intolerance, ignorance, intolerance, and political dirty games. The history of America has encountered several issues of racial discriminations and the youths of modern America intend to stop such discrimination among human beings.
The fact that such relationships destroys two cultures have been countered with the fact that even if there are racial differences between two cultures, then also such relationships can be turned into a successful one by trying to adapt and respect each others culture, mutual understanding and by making few compromises.
Many intellectuals in America including famous Hollywood stars, base ball and NBA stars often agree to the fact that there are no robust reasons for which a White and a Black can’t fall in love in each other. Again here it should be mentioned that it is not the problem with the skin tone or color but the real problem lies with the behavior, personality, character and mentality of the two persons involved in the relation.
A couple can face a break up due to many reasons. It can be monetary stringency, lack of love, unfaithfulness of a partner, lack of reciprocal trust, mismatch of individual mentality and several other factors. Surely it is not the color of the skin that has led to the break up as the couple concerned has spent several years or months together in the same house, sharing the same bed. It can’t be like one fine morning, my partner finds out that I have a different skin color and hence decide not to spend her life with me, thus breaking the sacred union known as marriage.
As history says, it was not only in America where obstacles and hindrances have been set against interracial marriages. In Italy, the Fascists had also passed law to stop the marriages of white Italians with black Ethiopians or Somalians.
Today America has learned to resist. It has resisted natural calamities, terrorist attacks and now it has learned to resist and cope with the problems of interracial relationships. The youths of America have started believing the fact that it is not the surroundings and environment, but they themselves who would decide whom to love and whom to hate.
In this context I have a story of a young Italian and a black American. They fell in love after they met with each other in the Palace Of Doges and eventually broke up with each other. The problem was not the skin color but unemployment for the Italian and frequent change of location for the very pretty Black American woman.
Is it true that Ethiopians only date their own kind since they are afraid of polluting the gene pool?
For all those who have traveled to Africa and lived here in America this question is specifically for you. I was told that Ethiopians only date their own kind. Even though the person may not be Ethiopian but black they still won’t date that individual. Is that true and is it just here in America or all around the world.
I think Ethiopians are very sexy…the girls have beautiful hips and they are just really attractive.
That is not true it realy depends on the person and i know a lot of ethiopians who do date other groups. you are right ethiopian girls are very sexy and hot!
The Vanishing Hitchhiker â€“ Norman A. Rubin (The â€˜vanishing hitchhiker’ legend is a reported strange and mysterious occurence in which people travelling by vehicle met with or are accompanied by a hitchhiker who subsequently vanished without explanation, often from a moving vehicle without leaving a trace.)
The questions asked over and over again â€“ was it possible for a person that was seen and heard one minute and then totally disappeared within a flash, never to be seen or heard from again? It was additionally weird that it only happened during the dark of night. It usually occurred to a driver driving through the loneliness of the hour through an equally quiet roadway. The figure was sighted with the hand sign of a hitchhiker in need of a ride to a certain destination. The motorist with good intentions then stopped and asked the man or woman to where he or she is headed. “Hop in, going that way..”, as the driver offered the figure a lift. The journey proceeded, sometimes in total silence, and at some subsequent point the passenger appeared to have vanish while the vehicle was in motion.
Throughout the annals of history, legends and stories had been told of strange figures that are picked up along roadsides and then vanished without a trace from the interiors of automobiles, from carriages and even from the backs of horses!
This mysterious legend in various forms has been with us for many years. Tales of these spectral passengers (usually young and rather beautiful women) are often attached to bridges, dangerous hills and intersections and cemeteries, especially those grounds in lonely spots. There were stories of “vanishing hitchhikers” being told as far back as the late 1800’s, when men would tell stories of ghostly women who appeared on the back of their horses. Those spectral riders always disappeared when they reached their destination and would often prove to be the deceased daughters of local farmers. Very little has changed from those days in the stories about the â€˜vanishing hitchhiker’ that are still told today, outside of the preferred method of transportation.
Stories of phantom hitchhikers have been a part of ghost lore since ghost stories began to be told to rapt listeners. In the old days, before automobiles, people told of picking up passengers in carriages and buggies, only to have them vanish before reaching their destination. Many of these stories exist as nothing more than urban legends that have been handed down from one generation to the next, but there are others that appear to be disconcertingly real… stories with reliable witnesses and strange facts which cannot be disputed
According to folklorist Jan Brunvand, the legend of the vanishing hitchhiker legend evolved from earlier European stories, usually about travelers on horseback. He states that in Hawaii, the hitchhiker became associated with the ancient volcano goddess Pele, travelling the roads incognito and rewarding kind travellers. And along the East African coast the hitchhiker in their version of the legend takes the form of a beautiful girl who is picked up by cross country truckers: At some point the truck driver looked over at his beautiful passenger and discovered to his horror that she is a â€˜jini’ and has goat’s legs. At this point the girl or jini laughed and disappeared into the void.
The phenomenon of hitchhikers that had been vanishing in the U.S. and throughout the world had been going on for many years, till this very day. What could be the reasons for this strange happening? Actually there might be quite a few reasons for these occurrences. It could be an illusion seen by the driver or perhaps the driver was in his cups. Other theories abound from extraterrestrial beings, or an actual ghost and spirits that neared his or her place of rest, usually near a cemetery.
Are these stories simply “urban legends” with no basis in truth – or is there more to the enigma than meets the eye? Could any of them have a basis in truth? What if a somewhat true incident to a vanishing hitchhiker like one of many that actually happened somewhere and then was told and retold to the point that it lost many of the elements of truth if any? As the story spread from one locale to another, it was embraced by people all over the country and became a part of their local lore.
Time and time again there have been sober witnesses to a ghost of a beautiful young girl who had been appearing along the road near Greensboro since 1923. She stood (and probably standing) in the gloom of the coming dusk next to the US Highway 70 Underpass in a white evening gown and waved frantically for someone to stop and pick her up. Those hapless motorists who stopped were introduced to a young and pretty young girl who says her name is Lydia and she always asked them to please take her to an address in High Point. She always related to them that she has spent the evening at a dance in Raleigh and was anxious to get home. She said that her date had gotten mad when she stopped his advances and had made her get out and walk. She didn’t say much on the way. When drivers approached the house the girl always vanished from their car, never opening the door and getting out…. just simply she was there one minute and gone the next! Those drivers who went to inquire at the house were always told the same thing… that Lydia died in a car wreck many years ago, coming home from a high school dance in Raleigh and perishing at the US Highway 70 underpass.
A similar story was told that along Highway 48 in South Carolina. Concerned motorists who claimed that they had seen a vanishing hitchhiker in the form of a young comely girl carrying a suitcase walking along the road signaling with her thumb. They stopped and offered her a ride and she told the driver that she is going to visit her sick mother in Columbia. As she entered the vehicle she gave the address of her destination, but throughout the journey she remained quiet, not uttering one word. Then suddenly at the outskirts of the city she vanished from the auto; nor was her suitcase found. One motorist who picked her up went to the address and described the girl to a man who lived there. He said that it was his sister and that she was killed by a hit-and-run driver while walking to visit their sick mother. This happened to several independent witnesses over a three-year period in the 1950’s.
One hitchhiker story from Arkansas involves a girl in a formal dress standing by the side of the road who was picked up by two college boys on their way to their annual prom. One of the youths noticed she was shivering from the cool of the night air and he gave her his coat to wear. The girl was silent throughout the trip, only pointing out the house where she said she lived. When they had stopped they found that the girl had vanished. The youth forgot to get the coat back, and when he and his companion returned to the house to retrieve the garment a woman dressed in black met them and said the girl was her daughter but she was dead and buried. At a later period they went to view the grave and there, draped across the tombstone, was the young man’s coat.
Another type of legend pertaining to the vanishing hitchhiker comes from a tale haunting the Green Mountain Cemetery south of Bellville in Illinois. As the story goes you can pick up a ghostly rider if one would drive around the cemetery three times on a stormy night with door to the car opened. The legend goes on to say that on the third trip, a ghostly woman will appear, soaking wet from the rain, will appear dressed all in black in the passenger seat. By the time one has finished making the third round, the spirit will have vanished, but to one’s horror a pool of water on the passenger seat will remain..
These legends would not be baffling enough, but consider the biblical text of a “Vanishing Hitchhiker” story in the New Testament in which the Apostle Philip baptizes an Ethiopian who picks him up in a chariot, then disappears. “When they came out of the water, the Spirit snatched Phillip away….” (see Acts 8:26-39)
The spirit of religious evangelism continues this very day. New Zealand’s Christian community was abuzz with reports of a mysterious hitchhiker who had been thumbing rides on the North Island. The bloke they’ve picked up will say something like, “did you know the Lord is coming back?” and that’s the only thing the fellow said. Then he vanished from the speeding car. He’s appeared on several main roads, always to young Christian couples. Some had said the stranger was wearing immaculate white clothes, although no one had been able to describe his exact appearance.
The same story came from small towns around Natchez, Mississippi, that people were riding on the Traceway highway when they saw a man hitchhiking. When they stopped and he got in the back seat, he explained that he was Jesus and then disappeared. One couple said that they never pick up hitchhikers but they felt compelled to at that time only to have the same experience. They went to the park ranger station and reported it, only to be told that they were the sixth ones to stop and tell them the same story.
There are several versions of this story that was seen and heard throughout the world by motorist traveling on a road in the dark of the night hours. This ethereal person, usually dressed in white, usually fascinated the motorist. At some point, the hitchhiker would say something like “Jesus is Coming soon” then disappeared. And such reported incidents continue to be told till this very day….
Another version of the â€˜vanishing hitchhiker’ legend is one of prophecy of a natural disaster. According to the reports in the Tacoma Washington News Tribune following the Mount St. Helens eruption on May 18, 1980 many drivers swore on oath that they saw a woman dressed in white with her skin matching the color of the garment, thumbing a ride by the side of the road near the mount. She would get into the car and would eventually say in a ghostly whisper, “The volcano is going to erupt again between October 12 and 14.” Then as suddenly as she appeared she would vanish. Sure enough lava flowed from the volcano on October 12th.. It was a talked about urban legend at the time, though. Some people even swore they had picked up the woman in white before May 18th, and that she predicted the big one. Then the question asked would be the truism of drivers’ experiences â€“ Still it is quite spooky…
One story of such the frightening aspects of the â€˜vanishing hitchhiker’ happened to a group of Australian teenagers on the prowl for lonely girls for a bit of fun. They went cruising together every weekend looking for excitement when one night they saw a beautiful girl hitchhiking by the side of the road. They stopped, and offered her a ride, which she accepted. She got into the backseat with the boys sitting on either side of her and away they went. When they neared the lonely intersection she asked, “to be let out here please”. They refused to stop and drove through the intersection. She started screaming and suddenly disintegrated before their very eyes. The story ended with screeching brakes, car doors flying open, screaming boys diving out of the car, and a slightly teed off father who has to sell the car because he couldn’t get the faint but nagging smell of decay out of the vehicle.
The appeal of vanishing hitchhiker stories lies in the nature of the encounter — an interaction with a ghost occurs not because the main character went looking for the supernatural, but because it came to him. Such tales and legends underscore the belief that representatives from the spirit world can be encountered at any time and by anyone. Adding to the horror factor was the phantom’s passing for a living person. That the driver could not recognize it as a ghost during their time together makes it all that easier in the belief we won’t recognize such a ghost when we meet one either.
There are those who would want to relate in their claim to be witnesses to just such a phenomenon. But where do those vanishing hitchhikers go? How is it time and time again when they are seen they seem to defy the very basic laws of nature, which we are familiar with. Sometimes logic cannot explain the very nature of the event, so it is labeled an unexplained mystery. Perhaps one day in the future we’ll have the answers, perhaps.. But for now we are only shrouded in questions to the â€˜vanishing hitchhikers’.
NOTES: 1) Vanishing hitchhikers appeared in numerous songs and in the 1951 Orson Welles’ short film â€˜Return to Glennascaul’ the 1985 movie Mr Wrong, and the 1824 Washington Irving novel “The Lady With the Velvet Collar”. (www.snopes.com) 2) The Stephen King short story, “Riding the Bullet” is an example of an opposite version of this story, in which case, a dead man picked up a young hitchhiker, that told him of his mother’s upcoming death, and subsequently disappeared. 3) The Twilight zone television series aired an episode entitled â€˜the Hitchhiker’, based on a variation of the tale, written by Rod Sterling and based on a radio play by Lucille Fletcher.. And in South Africa in 1992 there was a cult film â€˜Dust Devil’ by Richard Stanley that featured a vanishing hitchhiker..
4) One must be aware that these tales of meeting â€˜vanishing hitchhikers or seeing ghostly phenomenon’s in varied cemeteries are tales referred to as â€˜urban legends’. They are stories that have been told and told, either in ballads or related as somewhat true experiences of the present day and have no real basis in fact… or do they?
5) The first proper study of the story of the vanishing hitchhiker was undertaken in 1942-3 by American folklorists Richard Beardsley and Rosalie Hankey, who collected as many accounts as they could and attempted to analyse them.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1) Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.- â€˜en.wikipedia.org’ 2) Peake’s Commentary on the Bible â€“ H.H. Rowley, Old Testament Editor, Matthew Black New Testament editor, Nelson Publishers, England. 3) The Vanishing Hitchhiker â€“ Jan Harold Brunvand â€“ W.W. Norton, New York -1981.(excerpts in Wikipedia Encyclopedia) 4) Big Book of Urban Legends, Paradox Press â€“ New York â€“ 1994 5) Encyclopedia of World Mythology, Forwarded by Rex Warner, Octupus Books, Ltd, London 1970-71
SIDEBAR: One of the Midwest’s, and America’s, favorite ghost stories is the tale of â€˜Resurrection Mary’, the vanishing hitchhiker. The cemetery, located in Justice, Illinois has been home to this famous spirit since the 1930’s. The story of â€˜Resurrection Mary’ is considered one of “the most famous ghostly legends in the city of Chicago. “The story began on one cold Winter night in 1934 when a young girl was killed in an auto accident while on her way home from the O’Henry Ballroom (now the Willowbrook Ballroom) on Archer Avenue in Justice, Il., a southern suburb of Chicago. She rested peacefully for the next five years, but in 1939 a cab driver picked up a young girl on Archer Avenue wearing a white gown, her face as white as her garment. It was a snowy January night, but the girl was not wearing a coat. She jumped in the front door of the taxi and sat demurely by the driver. She gave him instructions to get her home, saying that he needed to go north on Archer. Suddenly, she told him to stop and the driver looked out the window to where she had pointed. He turned to the passenger seat and saw that the girl had simply vanished from the cab…and the door had never opened. The taxi was directly in front of Resurrection Cemetery, where the girl had been buried after the accident. Over the years, sightings of Mary have been frequent. Many eager young men even claim to have picked her up and taken her dancing with them. Some very reliable witnesses say they have kissed her and found her lips chilled with cold. As they take her home, she always disappeared when they reach Resurrection Cemetery. Those stories were taken with a grain of salt, as they might have been spoken in the dregs of drink. One night in 1977, a passing motorist saw Mary holding onto the bars of the cemetery gate. He called the police, thinking a girl was trapped inside of the locked cemetery. Investigators found no one inside when they arrived but two of the bars in the gate were bent apart and small handprints were etched into the iron. Supervisors at the cemetery had the sections of the gate cut out to keep the curiosity seekers away. They were embarrassed into welding them back into place a year later as the handprints reappeared. Between the time they were removed and then replaced, the bars were analyzed by a lab for trickery. It was determined that on one would have made those handprints without applying extremely high amounts of heat. The indention can still be seen in the gate today. Over the years, sightings of Mary have been frequent. As the years have passed, sightings of Mary have continued. Taxi and truck drivers, motorists, reputable witnesses like police officers and ministers, and ghost hunters of all callings have reported the spirit as she walks along the side of the road or vanishes from the interior of moving automobiles. She has become one of the most famous ghosts of all time. Does she still haunt the gates and roadsides near Resurrection Cemetery? Note: Resurrection Cemetery is located along Archer Avenue in Justice, Illinois. Follow 95th Street to Roberts Road, which goes north to Archer. The cemetery is located at 7600 South Archer Avenue. This street will also take you to Mary’s favorite haunt, the Willowbrook Ballroom, formerly the O’Henry ballroom.
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