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Lvivi, a Multicultural City With Astonishing Arcitechture and a Wealth of Sights to See. Art and Decors are to be Seen Everywhere
Lviv or as russians say it Lvov, is a major city in western Ukraine, the administrative center of Lviv Oblast, and designated as its own raion (district) within that oblast. It is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. In 2001, it had 725,000 inhabitants, of which 88% were Ukrainians, 9% Russians and 1% Poles, with a further 200,000 commuting daily from suburbs.
The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as the Lviv University and the Lviv Polytechnic. It has a philharmonic orchestra and The Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lviv celebrated its 750th anniversary in September 2006.
The public bus network is not well-developed: it has few lines. A cheap alternative are the marshrutki, small private buses which go where the city buses do not. Marshrutki have no fixed stops or timetable but are cheaper (1 hryvnia ?20US cents) and fast. The marshrutki also run on suburban lines to most nearby towns e.g. to Shehyni at the Polish border.
The city centre tramway lines were replaced with trolleybuses on 27th November 1952. Later, new lines were opened to the blocks of flats at the city outskirts. The network now runs 200 trolleybuses, mostly of the 1960s 14Tr type.
Modern Lviv remains a hub on which nine railways converge, providing local and international services. Several trains cross the nearby Polish-Ukrainian border (mostly via Przemy?l). There are good connections to Slovakia (Košice) and Hungary (Budapest). By western standards, the trains are slow but cheap. A journey to the western border with Hungary or Slovakia (several hundred kilometres) costs a few euros/dollars. Many routes have overnight trains with sleeping compartments.
Lviv’s historic churches, buildings and relics date from the 13th century. Its architecture reflects various European styles and periods. After the fires of 1527 and 1556, Lviv lost most of its gothic-style buildings, but it retains many buildings in renaissance, baroque, and classic styles. There are works by artists of the Vienna Secession, Art Nouveau, and Art Deco styles.
The buildings have many stone sculptures and carvings, particularly on large doors, hundreds of years old. The remains of old churches dot the central cityscape. Some 3-5 story buildings have hidden inner courtyards and grottos in various states of repair. Some cemeteries are of interest, for example the Lychakivskiy Cemetery. Leaving the central area, the architectural style changes radically as Soviet-era high rises dominate. In the centre, the Soviet era is reflected mainly in a few modern-style national monuments and sculptures.
The most notable of the museums and art galleries are the National Gallery, the Museum of Religion (formerly the Museum of Atheism) and the National Museum (formerly the Museum of Industry).
Lviv was an important centre for sport in Central Europe and it is regarded as the cradle of Polish football. First known official goal in a football match in Poland was scored there on July 14, 1894.
In January of 1905 first Polish ice-hockey match took place here, two years later first ski-jumping competition was organized in nearby Slawsko, in the same year first Polish basketball games were organized in Lviv’s gymnasiums.
Lviv is the hometown of the Eurovision Song Contest 2004 winner Ruslana, who has since become very popular in Europe.
Lviv has lots to offer the tourists visiting this city, amongst these are; the Old Town and the Ploshcha Rynok Market Square which is about 18,300 square metres.
The old city with its urban fabric and its architecture, makes Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic traditions of eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany.
The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities within the city, evidence for which is still discernible in the modern townscape.
The Black House and the Armenian Cathedral together with the Orthodox Cathedral with Korniakt Bell Tower are other sights worth visiting.
The Latin Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary , St. George’s Cathedral of the Greek-Catholic Church and the Dominican Church of Corpus Christi are churches and monuments that offer some nice architectural styles.
The Chapel of Boim family together with Lviv High Castle hill overlooking the historical center are really giving something else to the visitor.
Union of Lublin Mound and the Lychakivskiy Cemetery should not be missed either. After World War II the city was annexed by the Soviet Union to the Ukrainian SSR and the majority of the surviving pre-war inhabitants of the city were expelled to former German areas annexed to Poland. This started a period of devastation of historical monuments located at the cemetery. Up to 1971 many of the sculptures were destroyed; the cemetery of Lwów Eagles was completely destroyed and turned into a truck depot. However, in 1975 the cemetery was declared a historical monument and the degradation ended. Since late 1980’s the cemetery has seen constant rebuilding and refurbishment and continues to be one of the principal tourist attractions of Lviv.
Restaurants and pubs together with a night life makes this place a nice place to visit for tourists in all ages.
Nicknames are given to shorten a name or a manner used to eliminate the formality in addressing a person. Babies are given nicknames to call them in an affectionate or more personal manner. Babies tend to have cute and fun nicknames. Depending on what is their real name, parents can always come up with something cute and affectionate to call their babies aside from their given names.
Some common baby nicknames that parents use to call their baby girls names include Lily for Lilibeth, Jessie for Jessica, Annie for Annette, Lizzie for Elizabeth and Ella for Michaella and for baby boys, Bernie for Bernard, Mickey for Michael and Willy for William. Some parents with babies that have name combinations use the initials to come up with a nickname for their babies. Examples of these are; MJ for Mary Jane, JR for John Robert and RJ for Ronald Allen.
Coming up with a nice nickname to call your baby sometimes require a little creativity and a lot of affection for the baby. Some nicknames just come spontaneously like calling a baby girl Little Missy or a baby boy Little Mister for that sense. Some parents or even relatives and friends come up with their own nicknames for the baby thus creating a wide variety of nicknames. It is even surprising to know sometimes that a baby is called differently by different people despite of having a given name by his parents. This is how nicknames are, they are informal, spontaneous and more often than not, just elements of fun and affection. They are different adaptations of a person’s real name.
Giving your baby an appropriate nickname lessens the chances of people naming your baby any other way. Nicknames are sometimes used to make fun of a certain name or person. Parents should be careful in giving their babies nicknames as this may connote something else to other people. In creating baby nicknames, the integrity of the baby’s real name should be preserved.
However, choosing an unusual baby name requires some care. How can you choose a name that is distinctive, yet does not end up sounding ridiculous? Of course, you don’t want your child to be at the receiving end of all the Waynes and Dylans in his school. Here are a few tips:
1. Check what’s out there. Start by looking up popular baby names listed in parenting books and websites. Along with the more familiar ones, you will also find some unusual baby names that you have rarely heard before, and that will catch your fancy.
2. Old is gold. Many old names that were quite popular until recently have now fallen out of favor. Research names in historical archives or literature, or dig up some of the unusual names from your own family records.
3. Read the glossies. Celebrity baby names are another good source for distinctive names. The advantage here will be that though the name will be unusual, it will have built up some level of familiarity and acceptability because of the media coverage. The disadvantage, of course, will be that the name may end up becoming too popular, thereby losing its novelty factor.
4. Get the spelling right. Be careful about using an unusual baby name that is simply a popular name cached in a new spelling-such as ‘Jaysonne’ or ‘Jayesun.’ This will of course sound phony, considering that the pronunciation will remain plain old ‘Jason.’ More importantly, your child may even have to face ridicule from others on this account.
5. Avoid strange combinations. Also, resist the temptation to create an unusual baby name by stringing together two or more names, such as ‘Branjelina’. Unless done sensibly, such a name will probably sound outlandish or gawky.
For more names visit our site:
True Thinks Name
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Would a white girl date an East Indian guy?
I’m an Indian guy (the real India) who’s 5’8″. I have been told I look okay by a couple of white girls at clubs but I would like to know whether white girls have a problem with my bronze skin. Are they okay to date an Indian guy?
If they say you look okay, they’d probably date you. Also, there’s no reason I can think of why a white girl wouldn’t date an Indian guy. One of my best friends (an Indian) is dating a French girl. What matters is your personality!
On a side note, watch the strong-smelling food, and make sure to dispel that smell before you go out. Many people are not a fan.
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Foreign Bride Questions:
Is it just me? or are indian girls????
the hottest girls in the world? they are tan, exotic..beautiful hair and eyes…and almost always a nice bod thats fit but bubblely. does any guy agree? Indian girls give your opinions on what im sayin if you want (i mean indian as in from india)
Everyone has their own tastes, women can look beautiful in so many different ways, and i certianly wouldn’t confine that beauty to one country or race.
shop online at India Bazaar Online for Indian 2010 Fashion products and accessories
Want a designer sarees that’s going to turn your hubby’s head when you walk into the room? Want a Designer sarees that is different from everyone else’s Indian sarees? Well you can have that beautiful sarees. What colors are in style for designer sarees? Here at india bazaar online you can shop by category, shop by colour, shop by occasion for buying sarees online you will see some new colors you have not seen in indian fashion sarees for a while like navy and burgundy gold, raspberry, purple orange, black and white, and all the fashion sarees colors like turquoise, lime and fuchsia. Girls always love purple and this year for the bridal sarees you will see the best purple kundan jewellery. Royal blue is making a comeback big time for 2010–a sure winner. Royal blue is a real hot color this year. Gold and silver will be important and the new metallic lamé fabrics will show you off to the limit. What kind of style should I focus on if I want to look sexy in contemporary sarees? Designer sarees for 2007 are everywhere. Want to know what styles are hot? They are making their way back into the heart of many teens for the sarees You’ll see lots of sexy sarees at india bazaar online. Everyone wants to like a Indian princess. What type of bridal sarees should I look for if I’m not that tall? Many girls that aren’t so tall (like me) are going toward fitted silhouettes and flirty, little short salwar kameez. You don’t have to do anything too extravagant to show off your best feature, just make sure that your look shows it off and enhances it. If your best feature is great skin, the last thing you’d want to do is cover up every inch of it with clothing. Dressing for your best feature is less about dressing for size or age and more about making the best of what you have to work with. One important thing to remember is when you’re looking to buy a Designer sarees from indiabazaaronline focus on a bling bling sarees or bling bling accessories not both. If you have both it would be to overwhelming to the naked eye and one will take away from the other. The idea here is to make either the dress or the accessories the focus, not both. For example, A bridal sarees with no adornment could carry a chunky indian artificial bracelet and kundan necklace or a pair of chandelier earrings. Solid color sarees, lehenga choli, salwar kameez and neutrals are a great backdrop for colorful jewels. On the other hand, the more ruffles, tiers and beading a lehenga choli has, the simpler the accessories should be. It doesn’t mean you have to go bare but you need to use self-control and choose smaller pieces. The difficulty to dressing for special occasions such as homecoming or the prom is that young women look wrong if they indian women clothing like sarees, salwar kameez, lehenga choli for their age: in contemporary sarees, young women/girls look ready for occasion. Look at Indiabazaaronline and see what’s in style. You don’t want to go looking like grandma just run over by a reindeer!
Indian Silver Jewelry – Their Elegance Can Mesmerize You
Looking for some out-of-the-box items to gift your beloved in your coming anniversary? Confused about what to choose and where to choose from? Well, all your confusions in this regard will come to an end with the 925 handmade sterling silver jewelries.
Yes, gold is staying on the top of preference list in terms of an elegant jewelry metal because of the distinct glory the gold jewelries possess. But, good quality artistic finished silver jewelries also contain the same elegance and glamour like the gold jewelries.
When it comes to the most elegant quality silver jewelries that have a distinct appeal then the name of handmade Indian silver jewelry would come on the top. India is the nation where you will find a wide range of silver jewelries that belong to different colors, textures and designs. When it comes to silver jewelry then the West is popular for mirrored and stoned works, while the East is popular for beaded works and among all the nations popular for their outstanding contribution in silver jewelries, India comes on the top.
Among all types of silver jewelries for which the Indian jewelry artists are worldwide popular, pair of toe rings is the popular one. In India, this is a symbol of married girl which are studded with different types of stones. In the nation, different cultures of people prefer to wear different kinds of nose rings. As example, women of North India usually wear large-sized nose rings, even it has been seen that the nose rings they wear is bigger than the bangles they wear. The Indian silver jewelries are made of different types of gems and stones, which enhance the aesthetic radiance of those jewelries.Another most admired type of Indian silver jewelry is silver anklet. These are available in two types, named moveable and immovable.
In the country of Vedas good quality silver jewelries are available only in certain places, for which purchasing it online would be the smartest option for you. Over the internet you will find the presence of several 925 handmade sterling silver jewelry suppliers and exporters, over there you will find an extensive range of silver jewelries, from which you will not find it difficult to opt your desired type of silver jewelry.
Now you will find ample number of jewelry shops around you, but you are suggested to purchase your desired type of Indian sterling jewelries from a specialized Indian silver jewelry manufacturer and exporter. Over the online marketplace you will find the presences of large number of 925 Indian silver jewelry manufactures, from there you will not find it difficult to avail your required type of silver jewelry and that too by saving your wallet.
What are best places to find East Indian girls for friendship or dating in US?
I am 32 yr old, divorced East Indian guy living in US. I never had any Indian girl as my friend or girl friend. Even my ex wife was not Indian. I am just wondering, if I want to find an Indian girl to date, what are best places to find Indian girl for friendship or for dating?
Thank a lot in Advance.
Try Friends.com I think in there family of sites they have an Indian singles network.
When it comes to finding true LOVE we often see ourselves drifting on the seas of doubt, indecision, and heart breaks. For the most of us, it’s difficult to get out of our comfort zone and gather the courage to take a leap of faith and search for that perfect bride, far and beyond. It is no mystery that this journey comes up with lots of ups and downs. As a poet once rightly said- “The art of love… is largely the art of persistence.” Hence, every man who is probing for love has to stand the test of time and will have to dodge several wrong balls, to hit the right one!
So, if you think you are willing to take a shot at true love then this article will help you in your endeavors to get the woman of your dreams!
The Love-Internet Connection
One of the biggest fads these days is online dating. This service helps you stretch your boundary and connect with women living far away from you, women who belong to different races, follow different cultures, and live in a way very different from yours. These females could be Latin, Colombian, Costa Rican, Dominican, or maybe Mexican.
Finding The Perfect Bride
It’s a fact that different cultures make different personalities. Every religion and society subjects changed values on its followers. For Instance- Latinas or Latin women, from a traditional family, have been brought up to be extremely faithful to their men. They are expected to be humble and not show off or crow. They have a subtle nature and have been taught to be modest and reserved about sex. They like taking a sedate approach to relationships and do not like being very open.
These women have deep seated religious connection, primarily in the Catholic faith. Although many Latinas have created a sexy Latin image, most still hang on to the customs of their religion.
Costa Rican women on the other hand seem to be at a crossroad of modern roles and traditional ones. However, most of these women you will find still feel a momentous connection to their traditional values. For instance, they live with their parents until they get married, a fact which demonstrates the significance of family even in personal matters related to sex and marriage. Moreover, even though Costa Rican women are independent due to their work, they like to be dependent on their family and on the principles established by the society.
Likewise, Mexican women are a symbol of independence and fortitude. They are generally raised in loving Christian families which inculcate strong moral values in them. They have very good work ethic and take up responsibilities early in life. These women are great cooks and know how to keep their man satisfied. They normally are attracted toward men who are dependable, courteous, helpful, and able to express love.
In general, Mexican, Costa Rican, and Latin women are very patient, warm, and helpful. They understand the importance of relationships and give their best to keep their man and children happy. They have a very strong sense of home and genuinely believe in the institution of marriage.
“Takin’ Back My Love” – Enrique Iglesias feat. Ciara
Dana Ullman: Exploring the Research on Homeopathic Treatment for Fibromyalgia
The body of scientific evidence showing efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment in the care of patients with fibromyalgia suggests significant benefits.
How many woman from peru come to united states and become pregnant?
I guess as many who come from the united states to peru and become pregnant
San Pedro, the “miracle Healer”
San Pedro (Trichocereus pachanoi), the sacred cactus and visionary teacher plant of the South Americas, is especially associated with the shamans and healers (curanderos) of the Peruvian Andes. It has other names among these healers as well; including “El Remedio”: The Remedy, which refers to its healing and visionary powers which, they say, can help us to let go of “the illusions of the world”.
Even its post-Hispanic name, San Pedro, embodies these qualities because Saint Peter is the holder of the keys to Heaven and the name of the cactus therefore speaks of its ability to ‘open the gates’ into another world where those who drink it can heal, discover their divinity, and find their purpose on Earth.
It is also known as huachuma and this is how it is most often referred to by the shamans who use it, who call themselves huachumeros (male) or huachumeras(female). Its use as a sacrament and in healing rituals is as old as history itself. The earliest archaeological evidence so far discovered is a stone carving of a huachumero found at the Jaguar Temple of Chavín de Huantar in northern Peru, which is almost 3,500 years old. Textiles from the same region and period of history depict the cactus with jaguars and hummingbirds, two of its guardian spirits, and with stylised spirals representing the visionary experience.
Another image, of an owl-faced woman holding a cactus, comes from a ceramic pot from the Chimú culture, dating to 1200 AD. According to native beliefs, the owl is a tutelary spirit and guardian of herbalists and shamans, so the woman depicted is most likely a curandera (healer) and huachumera.
Cactus ceremonies are held today for the same reasons as ever: to cure illnesses of a spiritual, emotional, mental, or physical nature; to know the future through the prophetic and divinatory qualities of the plant; to overcome sorcery or saladera (an inexplicable run of ‘bad luck’); to ensure success in one’s ventures; to rekindle love and enthusiasm for life; and to experience the world as divine.
The ethnobotanist, Richard Evans Schultes, wrote of San Pedro in the book Plants of the Gods that it is “always in tune with the powers of animals and beings that have supernatural powers… Participants [in ceremonies] are ‘set free from matter’ and engage in flight through cosmic regions… transported across time and distance in a rapid and safe fashion”. He quotes one Andean shaman who describes some of the effects of the plant: “First, a dreamy state… then great visions, a clearing of all the faculties… and then detachment, a type of visual force inclusive of the sixth sense, the telepathic state of transmitting oneself across time and matter, like a removal of thoughts to a distant dimension”.
Lesley Myburgh (known in the Andes as La Gringa: “the outsider woman”) is another of these shamans. She has led ceremonies with San Pedro for almost 20 years.
“It is a master teacher”, she says. “It helps us to heal, to grow, to learn and awaken, and assists us in reaching higher states of consciousness. I have been very blessed to have experienced many miracles: people being cured of all sorts of illnesses just by drinking this sacred plant. We use it to reconnect to the Earth and to realize that there is no separation between you, me, the Earth, and the Sky. We are all One. It’s one thing to read that, but to actually experience this oneness is the most beautiful gift we can receive.
“San Pedro teaches us to live in balance and harmony; it teaches us compassion and understanding; and it shows us how to love, respect, and honour all things. It shows us too that we are children of light – precious and special – and to see that light within us.
“Each person’s experience will be unique, as we are all unique, and drinking San Pedro is therefore a personal journey of discovery, of the self and the universe. There is one thing in common though:The day that you meet San Pedro is one you will never forget – a day filled with light and love, which can change your life forever… and always for the better”.
In 2008, during one of my visits to Peru to work with San Pedro, I interviewed La Gringa about her life and experiences with huachuma, the cactus of vision. Her answers show not only the healing potential of this plant but cast light on the traditions which surround it and their evolution in the modern world. For those who work as shamanic healers, what La Gringa has learned from huachuma is also of interest because it suggests where illness may come from and how, therefore, it may be cured, even by those who do not work with San Pedro themselves.
How did you come to be involved in shamanic practice?
I first drank San Pedro in the 1990s and that experience overturned everything I thought I knew about reality. During my visions, out in the mountains, I saw a stairway of light on a nearby hill and I called my shaman over to explain it.
“There is nothing to explain”, he shrugged. “It is a stairway of light”.
“You mean you see it too?” I asked.
“Of course”, he said. “Take a photograph if you don’t believe it is there”. I thought he was crazy. How could I photograph a vision: something that was just in my head? But I didn’t want to be disrespectful so I took the picture anyway.
Later I got it developed, and there it was: a stairway of light, just as I’d seen it, although I had never seen it there in the mountains before and you will probably not see it now. I called my shaman and he came over to look at the picture, although he didn’t seem that surprised by it, like I was.
“That’s what I’ve been trying to tell you!” he said. “These things are not just in your mind. They exist. San Pedro opens your eyes to what is already there!”
San Pedro had shown me reality as it actually was, but it had also changed what I thought of as real. I now understood the vast power we humans have, and that we can manifest anything we choose; we just have to believe we can. San Pedro teaches us how to believe.
It teaches us that we are part of everything, that we are brothers and sisters, and that nature in its true form is beautiful. It wakes us up and shows us how to be conscious of the Earth. Before San Pedro I used to walk through the world and not notice it. Now I notice everything and I have a new respect for it.
That wasn’t the only ‘miracle’ I saw that day though. My shaman was a gentle man and I felt peaceful and protected as I lay in the sun. So, when I opened my eyes and saw two children looking down at me, they were so beautiful I thought they were angels. I was in awe of them and it took me some moments to realise they were real and were crying and asking for help.
They said their father was sick at home and they had no mother so they didn’t know what to do. They were frightened that he was dying.
I went to their house with my shaman and when I saw the man I thought he was dying too. But the shaman walked calmly over to him and started to blow on the top of his head through some coca leaves he had with him. He then used a feather, running it over the sick man’s head and body; then he said a prayer.
As soon as that was done the man sat bolt upright and started to vomit like he’d never stop. Immediately he looked better. The shaman said he’d be fine after that and when we left the house he was already out of bed and taking care of his children.
That was my first experience of a shamanic healing, and all the shaman had used was a feather and some leaves and, of course, the knowledge given him by San Pedro. After that I knew that I wanted to work more with this plant.
You trained with other shamans too. Tell us about your present teacher.
His name is Ruben. I met him ten years ago in a church in the Sacred Valley, quite by chance. I learned so much from him right from the start. He is a famous anthropologist who for many years ran the Machu Picchu sacred site, but he is also a shaman so he knows why and how things work from both a historical and a spiritual perspective.
His training was very hard. He was not like my first shamanic teachers, who were much gentler. He made me drink San Pedro twice a week for several years. Sometimes I would beg him not to have to drink it! I’d sob and say I was too sick to drink, because I just couldn’t face another session. But he would say, “Good! You’re sick! That – and the fact that you can’t face the healing you need – is exactly why you need to drink it! Get your coat and let’s go!”
At the time it was agony, but now I know he was right and drinking all that San Pedro was the best thing that happened to me. I saw all the bad things in my life in a new light and was able to let them go. I cleared whole lifetimes in those years, and I learned so much about San Pedro and healing too.
I still work with Ruben and I hope I always will. But he has softened a little now and no longer demands that I drink every week.
He is an ‘old school’ shaman, though, isn’t he, with lots of ritual as part of his ceremonies – the singado and contrachisa, etc. Did he teach you that too?
Oh yes. But I never felt comfortable with those rituals and Ruben agreed that I should work differently, especially as I was now healing many Westerners who didn’t really understand the rituals anyway. San Pedro guided me and said I should keep things simple. So now I say a prayer to open the ceremony and then as much as possible allow San Pedro to do its work without me getting in its way.
I do sometimes use tobacco in ceremonies though, but not the singado [tobacco leaf macerated in honey and alcohol which many shamans ask participants to snort into their nostrils to clear negative energies]; just tobacco smoke. It is good to blow the smoke over people if they are going through a tough time or have stuck energy somewhere within them. The smoke frees it up.
I also use agua florida [a plant-based perfume with healing properties] to balance people’s energies. Mostly I ask them to sniff it from the bottle or from their hands and it helps to ground them, but sometimes I spray it over them.
And of course I also use a mesa [a cloth altar laid out in a specific ritual way], although mine is much simpler than many others. In Peru, shamans work with many different layouts of mesa, but when you have your own you learn to use it in a way that suits you. It is a living thing so you develop a relationship with it. San Pedro teaches you how to use it too.
The objects at the centre of my mesa are shells and stones which have meaning and power for me. I arrange them in a straight line, like a spinal column with the stones as the vertebrae. This follows the notion in Peru that spiritual energy is held in the small of the back and as we advance on our paths and the plants guide us it begins to rise up the spine to the head, where it resides when we become fully conscious.
In the Andes we have three sacred animals: the serpent, puma, and condor, and you will sometimes see statues of all three, one on top of the other. The serpent represents the divine energy we hold in our backs; the puma is the body; and the condor is the awakened self: the mind that soars above the world. So these statues are also a representation of energy flowing through us and bringing us into new consciousness. The mesa I use is like that.
Some shamans use chonta [wooden staffs sometimes used to beat participants to move their spiritual energies around] and swords on their mesas as well; as protections and to change the energies of patients and heal them. I don’t, because I have always known that San Pedro protects me and my participants anyway, and that there is no greater protection or more powerful healer than the plant! So why would I need to hit participants with sticks – and interrupt their healings by doing so?
Ruben is a historian and regards my approach as form of evolution which gives people the healing they need through the correct ceremonies for our times. But it is also a de-evolution because so many rituals and objects have been artificially added to San Pedro mesas and ceremonies through the influence of the Spanish Catholics.
Before the Spanish came to Peru, Andeans believed in Inti, the god of the sun, and Pachamama, the Earth, so their rituals were simpler and needed fewer symbols, appeasements to God, or ways to keep evil at bay. The idea of guilt and a God who needed appeasing arrived with the Catholics and it was they who made our ancestors change their rituals or be killed. Before this, they were more natural and flowing.
So what I do may be an evolution, as Ruben calls it, but it is also a return to what was always done. It is as if we have evolved backwards rather than forwards in time!
Is your decision to hold ceremonies in the day instead of at night part of this ‘backwards evolution’ too?
Ruben holds his ceremonies at night and that is how he taught me, but as I grew in my understanding of San Pedro, night ceremonies – for practical as well as spiritual reasons – became another thing that did not really work for me.
Perhaps it is to do with the Spanish again and their Catholic notions of guilt and “suffering for our sins” that most San Pedro ceremonies are held at night! I always found it so cold and uncomfortable that I could never really relax enough to receive the healing of San Pedro. I mentioned this to Ruben and he understood exactly what I meant, so he began to hold ceremonies for me during the day. Then I really noticed the difference. In daylight is where all my breakthroughs have come.
For one thing, with San Pedro, you can look around you and see the beauty of the world and notice how connected you are to everything: that you are beautiful and part of a beautiful creation. You can’t do that in darkness.
What people need to understand is that San Pedro is not a hallucinogenic like ayahuasca, so they will never see images and pictures, and there is no point, therefore, in lying in the dark waiting for something to happen. San Pedro’s teaching is visionary instead, in the revelations it brings about the natural – not the spirit – world, and in daylight you can see that more clearly. That is why we hold our ceremonies in sunlight: because San Pedro wants it that way and that is how it was first done.
How do you prepare your San Pedro?
Most shamans peel and cut the cactus then boil it for between four and eight hours. They may also add alcohol and sometimes other plants or ingredients. I cook mine for twenty hours, however, so it is much stronger and also means that people are less likely to vomit when they drink it. Other San Pedro brews feel weak to me now and rarely give the same visions.
Some shamans say you don’t really need visions for a healing to take place with San Pedro. They have a point, but I still think they are important, because as well as the healing people need to know they have been healed. When the visions come they can feel it, then they understand it is real and pay attention to what they are shown… about how to protect themselves and stay well, or their place in the world and the beauty of their lives. Without the visions they can’t know this.
There are some other things to consider when preparing San Pedro. I only work with cactuses that have seven or nine spines because they produce the most gentle and beautiful brews. Those with six or eight spines are not so strong, while elevens and thirteens can be very intense but also sometimes dark. I never use either with patients.
Those with four spines are only ever used for exorcisms, and the patient and healer must both drink. You don’t ever want to try a San Pedro like this though. It is horrible and the visions take you straight to Hell.
While the cactus is cooking we often sing songs to it or offer our prayers that it will produce good healings. Every time we stir it we offer a new prayer, so maybe twenty prayers go into each bottle.
Sometimes the spirit of San Pedro shows up while we are cooking it too, in patterns on the surface of the water which tell us who will be coming to drink it and why. I have seen patterns in the form of ovaries, for example, complete in every detail; or hearts enclosed by circles. Then the next day a woman has arrived for help with a fertility problem and brought with her a man whose heart was closed to her dreams. In this way San Pedro can show us what people need before they even arrive.
What healings have you seen from San Pedro ceremonies?
One that meant a lot to me was for a woman who had always said she would never drink San Pedro, so her story shows in a way that you don’t even need to believe in the plant for it to heal you – although it is better if you do.
This woman’s husband had died a few years ago. He was a strong man but his disease meant he had wasted away to nothing. It took him a year to die while the woman nursed him. Then, just three months after that, her son was killed; murdered in South Africa, stoned to death and left to die. He was just 26.
The woman was shattered. She became like the walking dead. Soon afterwards she had a stroke which paralysed her arm and, from the shock of all she had been through, she got diabetes as well.
Finally, despite all her reservations before, she asked me if she could drink San Pedro. I gave her the tiniest amount but it was just perfect for her, as San Pedro always is, and then she lay in my arms and cried her heart out for five hours.
That is a good expression for what happened actually, because I had drunk San Pedro too and through its eyes I saw strands of energy coming from her heart and circling her chest and arm like a tourniquet. I began pulling them out of her and throwing them away.
The next morning was like a miracle. Her arm, which had been totally paralysed, had regained all of its movement. When she got home she saw a specialist who tested her diabetes too and that had gone as well. Now she has no problems at all.
I asked her about her San Pedro experience later and she said she had felt a lot of pain in her heart, which is where I had also seen the energy of grief that was binding her. So as well as curing her physical problems, San Pedro showed her why she had them: because of the emotional distress she had been unable to let go of before.
What I have learned from San Pedro is that illness is never a “thing” that is in us; it is not “diabetes” or “a stroke”. It is a belief that we carry: that we must mourn for the ones we have lost, for example, or for ourselves, through a pain or disability that makes our suffering visible and “real”. So illness is a thoughtform; a negative pattern we hold on to and reproduce. San Pedro not only heals us but shows us this thoughtform. Then, the next time it arises, we know it and can make a conscious choice to think and act differently.
The woman you described sounds like she had a “psychosomatic” problem, a term that has lost much of its power in the West today. Can you elaborate?
Every illness we have arises from our minds and souls. Another woman came to me after she was diagnosed with cancer and had been receiving chemotherapy. She looked so ill that I took her in and she spent the next seven days with me, vomiting constantly. At the end of it she realised that her doctors were not helping her and decided to work with the plants instead.
She phoned her doctor to cancel her appointments and he was extremely angry. He told her she couldn’t do that; that she was stupid and would die as a result of her decision – which, incidentally, is a curse.
Anyway, she stuck to her decision and now, through San Pedro, she is healed. The plant again showed her why she had cancer – which no Western medicine can do – and told her she had a choice: in blunt terms that she could die or change her mind and live the life she wanted. I know that sounds too easy but it really is as simple as that. She decided not to have cancer anymore because her realised that life was just too precious once she had seen it through San Pedro’s eyes.
I have also worked with women who have been sexually abused as young girls and are carrying the energy of that in their bodies, and usually a sense of guilt or shame as well, as if it was somehow their fault. This energy is also a thoughtform and it is making them ill and, sometimes, suicidal.
They need to drink San Pedro three times. The first is terrible, even for me to watch. They just lie in a foetal position and scream. The second time they are more relaxed but there is still a lot of crying. I usually drink San Pedro with them so I can connect to what they are going through and the plant can teach me what they need to heal.
The third time they drink everything changes and it is an experience of total joy. Afterwards they are so different that not even their friends recognise them! San Pedro shows them another way, a new belief about themselves, and helps them reconnect with love and the beauty of life which has been lacking for so long in their own.
That sounds like soul retrieval, but instead of the shaman performing it, the intelligence of the plant does it for them.
That’s right. It is soul retrieval or, rather, life retrieval. We hold our negative beliefs about ourselves as tensions in our bodies. If we don’t eventually release them, they become hardened and manifest as physical or emotional problems. At the same time, our good energies are blocked so that the fullness of our souls is not expressed and parts of us stay buried. San Pedro removes our negative beliefs so the positive ones shine through. So it is a form of soul retrieval; one where we return ourselves from ourselves.
Can you say more about how negative beliefs affect us?
In the Andes, shamans talk about “good” and “bad ideas” and these are, in a way, what I mean by thoughtforms. When someone says, for example, that you have “good ideas”, they don’t mean you are a creative genius! They mean you have good or spiritual thoughts or that you are at one with the truth and goodness of the world.
Sometimes they talk about a “good” or “bad wind” as well. These “winds” are an accumulation of thoughts or energies which are attracted to each other and share a common affinity. The good energies of many people having positive and uplifting thoughts can create a good wind but, by the same token, negative thoughts can band together to create a bad wind. In both cases, they are a sentient force which circulates in the world.
Thoughts like these have physical effects. I recently took a horse ride with a friend, for example, to visit the Q’ero of the high Andes and, some way into our journey, miles from anywhere and from medical help, my friend swooned and fell from her horse. She lay on the ground shaking and not of this world at all.
Luckily, we had a shaman with us who knew what had happened and, taking out his coca leaves, he placed them on her and blew through them into her crown. She stopped shaking straightaway and then began to come round.
When I asked him what had happened, he just shrugged and said “a bad wind”. She had been hit by a thoughtform which had, in a way, possessed her. He had blown a different energy into her to remove it and fill her with light.
But, imagine: if stray thoughts can do this much damage, how much stronger are our own ideas? Our beliefs about ourselves, our sicknesses and our powers or weaknesses are not random, after all; they are personal to us and may have been with us for years. So it is literally true that our thoughts can kill or cure us. We must be careful, then, about what we think. San Pedro helps and heals us by showing us how to do that.
Is there anyone you wouldn’t hold a ceremony for?
I once thought so. A few years ago some young people who were travelling South America asked for a ceremony. When I told them what it involved, they said not to worry, they’d taken a lot of drugs in the past and had heard about San Pedro and wanted to try “a new drug experience”. I must admit that I judged them in a bad light because they were trivialising San Pedro and saw it as “just another drug” – which it is not. It is a powerful spiritual medicine.
It was San Pedro that told me to relax. It reminded me that it can handle things for itself and make its own decisions about who can drink it, and to remember that I was the guide, not the healer! So after that I didn’t judge them and I gave them San Pedro.
Afterwards, they came to speak to me about their “drug experience” and told me their encounter with San Pedro had been the most humbling of their lives. San Pedro had told them straight, they said, that: “I am not LSD! I AM SAN PEDRO!” They learned from that and for some it changed their lives. They no longer take drugs at all.
So now I am humble too because I know that San Pedro will always give people what they need – even if it is not what they thought they would get. I like the expression you use: that with plant work you should have intentions but not expectations. That seems a good approach. But, in any case, I trust San Pedro and I know it will act with integrity towards everyone, so now I no longer discriminate.
There is a diet that goes with San Pedro, just as there is for ayahuasca. But with San Pedro it is easier. Can you say something about it?
All teacher plants require some ritual precautions prior to and during the ceremony. This is what we call the diet. It refers not just to restrictions around food and drink, as the name might suggest, but to other behaviours as well so we approach the plant with a pure intent. So when we talk about the “diet”, it is really more like the ancient Greek understanding of “dieta”: a change in lifestyle, not just in what we eat.
Ayahuasca demands preparation some days before, including food and behavioural taboos, sexual abstinence, fasting, and meditation, but San Pedro does not ask for such major changes. Nevertheless, for a day before it is drunk, food and drink should be as bland as possible and contain no alcohol, meat, oils or fats, spices, citrus fruits or juices, and there should be no sex.
For about twelve hours before the ceremony, there should be no food at all. This means a day of fasting if you are drinking San Pedro at night or no food from about 8pm on the night before if you are drinking it the next day. For a few hours before the ritual I also suggest a period of quiet reflection so you can think about what you would like to heal or learn about yourself.
That is really all the diet requires, although there are some specific conditions where a consultation with your shaman and medical doctor is recommended in advance of drinking San Pedro. These include problems with the colon, high blood pressure, heart conditions, diabetes, or mental illness. None of these will necessarily prevent you from drinking since the condition itself may be the very thing that you want San Pedro to cure, but your shaman and doctor must know.
A general rule with plant work is: the purer your body and spirit, the more powerful the medicine and its teachings. The diet helps with this.
I’ve heard it said that the ‘processes’ (set and setting) involved in ceremonies can contribute to the effects; that the shaman acts as a sort of hypnotherapist, for example, and offers healing suggestions to the patient, while the ritual contains practices like meditation which are relaxing and healing. What do you think of that?
I sometimes get asked things like that, mostly by scientists and academics. They want to know what the “make up” of San Pedro is, what its “active ingredients” are, and “how it works”. I tell them I don’t know and don’t care! For me, it is not San Pedro’s “mescaline content” or “properties” that are important; it is a healing spirit which produces miracles that I have seen with my own eyes. So I really don’t know or care how it works. I can’t explain a miracle any more than those who ask me about it can! But I know this: if you needed a miracle because your life was in that much pain, and if – by the grace of God and San Pedro – you got one, you wouldn’t care how it worked either!
Part of the disease, it seems to me, is to want to understand the world in terms of its “mechanisms” when its nuts-and-bolts really don’t matter at all. It is the beauty of the world that should attract, engage, and inspire us! When we drink San Pedro that is one of the first things we learn – and then our questions become irrelevant anyway. So the real answer, for those who want to know the hows and whys of San Pedro, is simple: drink it and then you will see!
The “what” of San Pedro is that it heals lives. Let us leave the sleepless nights of the whys and hows to the academics for whom such things seem to matter.
Ross Heaven is the author of more than 10 books on shamanism and shamanic healing, including Plant Spirit Shamanism, Plant Spirit Wisdom, and The Sin Eater’s Last Confessions. He runs workshops on these subjects too, as well as journeys to Peru to work with the shamans, healers, and plant spirit medicines (ayahuasca and San Pedro) of the Amazon and Andes. For more details of these events and a free Information Pack, visit www.thefourgates.com or email email@example.com.
An Ideal itinerary for a vacationÂ in East Africa after an all year’s hard work.Â Takes you to breath taking sites as you get the true African jungle experience taking you through the unpertabed flora and fauna.
This is a safari that promises the best of Kenya and Tanzaniaâ€™s premier parks. Visit the small but rewarding Lake Nakuru National park thereafter proceeding towards Masai Mara (Kenyaâ€™s most celebrated game park). This is where the great wildebeest migration is a spectacle to behold for any would be visitor to Kenya mainly in July and August of each year. In Tanzania, Ngorongoro Crater is said to have the worldâ€™s densest population of lion. In Lake Manyara lions have developed a liking for residing in the branches of trees, where they can both sleep and watch for prey whilst the Serengeti is notable for its large migratory herds of wildebeest and zebras with strings of predators in trail. The Ngorongoro crater also offers amazing wildlife viewing and scenery
Day 1 â€“ Nairobi – Lake Nakuru National Park We depart Nairobi and drive down the Escarpment to the floor of the Great Rift Valley to Lake Nakuru National Park for an afternoon game drive. The park covers 180 sq km and is home to warthogs, waterbuck, buffaloes, reedbucks, and the occasional leopard. White and black rhinos were introduced to the park some years ago and you will find white rhino at the southern end. The park has also retained its reputation as an ornithologistsâ€™ delight with more than 400 species of bird found here. We spend the night at a Lake Nakuru Guest House inside the park Day 2: Lake Nakuru – Masai Mara
Depart the camp soon after breakfast and drive via the scenic floor of the Great Rift Valley to Masai Mara. Lunch at a campsite before proceeding for evening gamedrives.Dinner and overnight stay at Mara Campsite Day 3& 4: Maasai Mara Full days spent exploring the park in search of the big 5.Morning and afternoon game drives are offered. Optional hot air balloon safari can be arranged at an extra cost of US$ 425 per person. Dinner and overnight stay at Mara Campsite
The Mara offers wildlife in such variety and abundance that it is difficult to believe: over 450 species of animals have been recorded here. You will easily see lions, rhinos, hippos, crocodiles, giraffe, wildebeests, zebras, buffalo, warthogs, hyenas, jackals, wild dogs, buffalo, leopard, many kinds of antelopes and elephant. It is in the Mara that perhaps the most spectacular event of the natural world takes place. This is the annual migration of millions of wildebeest and zebra from the Serengeti (Tanzania) in search of water and pasture. Following on their heels are the predators of the savanna- lion, cheetah, wild dog, jackal, hyena and vultures
Day 5 : Maasai Mara – Musoma We leave the campsite and drive through the southern part of the reserve viewing game as we proceed to the Tanzanian border at Isebania / Sirari. We stop for the night in a quiet town on the shores of the immense Lake Victoria known as Musoma. The surrounding countryside is home to many different tribes including the Kuria, Jita, Luo, and Taturu. Musomaâ€™s colourful port and variety of tribes make it a vibrant town. Dinner and overnight at Penunsila hotel
Day 6 : Musoma – Serengeti National Park Leaving in the morning, we drive south and west to the western corridor of the great Serengeti via Ndabaka Gate with a picnic lunch enroute. The afternoon is spent viewing game and we overnight at a campsite
Day 7 : Serengeti National park
Full day spent exploring the park. Morning and afternoon game drives ate offered. Dinner and overnight stay at a Seronera campsite.
The Serengeti National Park is arguably the most impressive wildlife sanctuary in the world. During the months December through March the seemingly unending plains of the southern Serengeti and the Conservation Area are inhabited by enormous herds of wildebeest and zebra. The great herds graze on rain ripened grass. In the calving season (late January through mid March) the herds concentrate at the Ndutu and Salei plains (Southern Serengeti / Ngorongoro Conservation Area) attracting the attention of predators like lion, cheetah and hyena.
Day 8 : Serengeti â€“Ngorongoro conservation area via Olduvai gorge We view game as we drive southeast up into the magnificent Ngorongoro Conservation Area .Stop over at The Olduvai Gorge with picnic lunch en route Over at the Olduvai where we spend the night at the Simba (Lion) campsite on the crater rim.
The Olduvai Gorge cuts through rock beds layered in time sequence from 2 million years ago to the present and it is here where humanoid bones have been found dating back to over 1.75 million years including a direct ancestor of modern man. Fossil foot prints (over three million years old) have also been found here and are the most ancient footprints yet discovered. There is an excellent site museum where you can explore the diggings with a guide and it is also a great place to view birds such as the purple grenadier, red and yellow barbet, speckle fronted weaver and slaty colored boubou. Day9: Ngorongoro – Arusha Early breakfast then descend into the crater for a full morning crater tour. Lunch then proceed to Arusha. Dinner and overnight stay at Sinka Hotel
The Ngorongoro crater is the worldâ€™s biggest whole volcanic caldera at 8300 sq km and is arguably the most stunning arena. It is frequently described as one of the wonders of the world, not only because of its geological magnificence, but also because it serves as an extraordinary natural sanctuary for some of Africaâ€™s largest populations of large mammals. Ngorongoro and other freestanding mountains are volcanic in origin, formed during the fracturing process that created the Rift valley 15 to 20 million years ago. When it peaked in size 3 million years ago it was a similar height to Mt. Kilimanjaro today
Day 10 : Arusha -Nairobi Break fast then board the morning Shuttle bus to Nairobi to arrive by 1400 hrs. Drop off at the airport to board your home bound flight.
Best of Kenya and Northern Tanzania adventure camping safari covering Samburu national park,Sweetwaters,Lake Nakuru and AASKTC 002 Naivasha,Amboseli/Northern Tanzania National park,Serengeti,Ngorongoro ,Lake Manyara and Tarangire in 15 Days .
Day 1: Nairobi- Samburu Game Reserve Pick up from your hotel at 0700 hrs and passing the majestic Mt. Kenya en route to the open savannah of Samburu Game Reserve. We camp in the narrow stretch of palms and woodland by the Ewaso Nyiro River which provides water for the animals and some relief from the equatorial sun. Day 2: Samburu National reserve. Full day spent exploring the park. Dinner and overnight at a campsite.
The highlights of Samburu game reserve is the spectacular scenic beauty, rivers and forests. It is an area where the local people have a rich and colorful heritage. The reserves have numerous permanent springs and a wealth of wildlife which includes leopard, hippo, elephant, lion, reticulated giraffe, grevyâ€™s zebra and crocodile in the Ewaso Nyiro River. Over 365 species of birds have been identified in the sanctuaries. Day 3 Samburu- Mt. Kenya/Sweet waters Depart Samburu and proceed to Mt.Kenya region. Lunch at Mountain Rock lodge followed by after noon game drives at the Sweetwaterâ€™s game ranch. Children can also enjoy a full hour of Horse riding Dinner and overnight stay at Mt.Rock campsite Sweetwaterâ€™s is the oÂ¬nly sanctuary for rehabilitation in Kenya of these widely abused chimpanzees with two groups living in an environment as close to their natural habitat as possible. The site is also a dedicated black rhino breeding area.
Day 4 Mt. Kenya – Lake Nakuru National park. We break the camp soon after breakfast and proceed to Lake Nakuru National park. Lunch enroute followed by an afternoon game drives as the pick lake. Dinner and overnight at a campsite.
Lake Nakuru is a shallow alkaline lake on the edges of Nakuru town and lies a distance of 160 kilometers from Nairobi. The lake is world famous as home to millions of flamingoes. The number of flamingoes depends on the water level which determines the quantity of algae on which the birds feed. Flamingoes are known to migrate to other Rift Valley lakes whenever the water level is low. The National Park surrounds the lake and was gazetted to protect the colony of flamingoes as well as provide sanctuary for endangered species such as the rhino. There are about 25 white and black rhinos, one of the largest concentrations in the country. Predators are also residents to this park while Rothschildâ€™s giraffe have been trans-located into the park for safety Day 5: Lake Nakuru- Naivasha We break the camp soon after break fast and proceed to Lake Naivasha.Morning visit to hells gate national park- this park can be explored on foot or by cycling- bicycles are available for hire at an extra cost. Dinner and overnight stay at fishermanâ€™s camp
Hells gate national park is characterized by diverse topography and geological scenery. It has historically been an important home for the rare lammergeyer, but it is now thought that the famous pair of birds may not have nested in the park for several years. One is encouraged to hike and cycle in the park. This is a rarity in Kenyan National Parks, and is only made possible due to the lack of large predators such as lions and cheetahs Day 6 : Lake Naivasha â€“ Amboseli National park Break the camp and proceed to Amboseli national park. Via Nairobi â€“Amboseli is the magnificent park at the foot hills of Mt.Kilimanjaro.After noon gamedrives followed by dinner and overnight stay at a campsite. This small park (at 392 sq km) is the second most popular park in Kenya after Maasai Mara, mainly due to the spectacular backdrop of Mt. Kilimanjaro on the southern boundary. Day 7 : Amboseli National park Full day spent exploring the park. Optional visit to Maasai villages can be arranged with our guide between game drives. Overnight stay at a campsite.
Amboseli means â€˜the place of waterâ€™ in Maasai language. The park has an endless supply of water which is filtered through thousands of meters of volcanic rock from Mount Kilimanjaro. Animal species seen include elephant, zebra, wildebeest, giraffe, impala and leopard. The birdlife seen here includes pelican, bee eater, kingfisher, African fish eagle and pygmy falcon. Amboseli is one of the most popular parks and offers excellent accommodation facilities. There are five lodges and two campsites inside the park. Kilimanjaro forms the backdrop of this game sanctuary and it is a sight to see and marvel at. The nomadic richly decorated Maasai who are deeply steeped in Maasai culture entertain visitors with enchanting dances of ageless Africa. Day 8: Amboseli – Lake Manyara After breakfast, we drive into Tanzania via the Namanga border. We also pass through Arusha to Lake Manyara National park with lunch enroute. Regardless of the direction we approach Manyara from, the view is always fantastic. We proceed to a campsite for dinner and overnight stay.
Lake Manyara is a shallow, alkaline lake that is part of the Rift Valley wall; the lake is at the base of this dramatic western escarpment giving it a beautiful and serene setting. In addition to this peaceful setting, Lake Manyaraâ€™s main attractions are its rich bird life, tree climbing lions and its hippos, which you can see at a closer range than many other places. Lake Manyara also hosts thousands of flamingos at certain times of the year and has diverse vegetation ranging from savannah, to marshes and acacia woodland, enabling a variety of wildlife habitats including butterflies. Day 9: Lake Manyara – Serengeti National park Morning gamedrives at Lake Manyara National park then proceed to Serengeti national park.Game is viewed as we proceed to the campsite for dinner and overnight stay. Day 10 /11 Serengeti National park
Full days spent exploring the park .
Serengeti is Africaâ€™s most famous and Tanzaniaâ€™s largest park covering 14,736 sq km and is adjoining with the Masai Mara National reserve in Kenya. With a wildebeest population of about 2 million and several other hoofed species (which include zebra, Thomsonâ€™s gazelle, impala, topi, Grants gazelle, Kongoni, Eland, Kirkâ€™s dik dik, klipspringer, roan, Oryx, oribi, waterbuck, buffalo, giraffe and warthog), the Serengeti is sure to attract a string of prey such as lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, golden jackals and bat eared foxes. Elephants are relatively scarce and the few remaining black rhinoceros are restricted to the Moru Koppies area. Serengeti also offers rewarding bird viewing with ostrich and kori bustard being common, a variety of larks, finches, and raptors can be seen but the most distinctive small bird is the lilac breasted roller. Day 12: Ngorongoro via Olduvai Gorge After an early breakfast, we drive south to the magnificent Ngorongoro crater via the historical Olduvai Gorge whilst game watching only interrupted by a picnic lunch enroute. We stop and set camp at the Simba (Lion) Campsite. The Ngorongoro crater is the worldâ€™s biggest whole volcanic caldera at 8300 sq km and is arguably the most stunning arena. It is frequently described as one of the wonders of the world, not only because of its geological magnificence, but also because it serves as an extraordinary natural sanctuary for some of Africaâ€™s largest populations of large mammals. The Olduvai Gorge cuts through rock beds layered in time sequence from 2 million years ago to the present. It is here where humanoid bones have been found dating back to over 1.75 million years including a direct ancestor of modern man. Fossil footprints (over three million years old) have also been found here and are the most ancient footprints yet discovered. There is an excellent site museum where you can explore the diggings with a guide and it is also a great place to view birds. Day 13 : Ngorongoro- Tarangire national park Morning crater tour then proceed to Tarangire national park .Dinner and overnight at a campsite. Day 14: Tarangire â€“ Arusha Full morning gamedrives the return to the camp for lunch. Break the camp soon after lunch and drive to Arusha town for overnight at a budget hotel.
Herds of up to 300 elephants scratch the dry river bed for underground streams, while migratory wildebeest, zebra, buffalo, impala, gazelle, hartebeest and eland crowd the shrinking lagoons. It’s the greatest concentration of wildlife outside the Serengeti ecosystem – a smorgasbord for predators â€“ and the one place in Tanzania where dry-country antelope such as the stately fringe-eared oryx and peculiar long-necked gerenuk are regularly observed Day 15 : Arusha â€“ Nairobi Board a Nairobi bound shuttle bus and drive to Nairobi â€“ to arrive at 1400 hrs.
Every year many people become a victim of online dating scams. Unfortunately these people do not even realise they are victims to dating scams until it is too late. The intention of all dating scams is to obtain money from innocent members of dating websites, therefore the importance of being familiar with the types of scams used and recognising the signs of a scammer cannot be underestimated.
A scammer can work alone, or as part of a larger group of individuals who spend their time chatting to legitimate members of dating websites. They do this by creating a false profile, often similar to your perfect match and they befriend you and gain your trust and affection. Once you have let your guard down and you believe they are your ideal partner, it is at that point that you could fall victim to one of the many scams widely used. The four main scams used on dating websites are the travel scam, the prostitute scam, the phone scam and the postal scam. Each scam is fairly straightforward and all result in you departing with your money if you fall victim to one.
One of the main purposes of using an online dating website is to eventually meet up with the individuals you chat to. Once you agree to meet up with someone, who unknowingly to you is a scammer, they will explain to you that they are currently living overseas and cannot afford the travel expenses to visit you. Having gained your trust and affection it is at this point they ask you to send them money for travel expenses and many innocent people send money to a scammer hoping that they will finally get to meet the man or woman of their dreams, but in reality you will never hear from them again. This is known as the travel scam and is sadly very commonly used.
The prostitute scam is fairly simple. Prostitutes take advantage of the online dating market and use dating websites to solicit business. A false profile is created, usually with a sleazy username and a raunchy detailed description, therefore making it relatively easy to recognise. Some people believe these prostitutes are genuinely looking for a relationship, but don’t be fooled into thinking this. They are on dating websites for one reason only; to make money at your expense.
The phone scam has been around for many years now but has now sadly become one of the online dating scams. As a member of a dating website you may receive a message from someone you have become friendly with asking you to phone them on the phone number given to you. You will be led to believe they want to talk to you in person away from the dating website. Unfortunately the phone number will not belong to the person you believe you are in contact with and you will find yourself receiving a large phone bill as a result of phoning the number given to you.
Scammers use several variations of the postal scam, although the principle is the same for all of them; you will be asked to send money. The most common postal scam is the Nigerian 419 scam which is also known as AFF or Advanced Free Fraud. This scam is usually used by people living in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Ghana and possibly other countries in western Africa. Once a scammer has befriended you, they will tell you that they live in the UK and are currently working abroad, generally one of the countries previously mentioned. They will then give a plausible reason for needing money urgently and ask you to send them the money leading you to believe that you are the only person that can help them. Many people fall for the scams at this point and send the requested money, believing that they are genuinely helping a new friend in need. Scammers give many reasons for needing money, some examples are; They will tell you that they have a critically ill relative back in the UK and they need money for travel expenses to urgently visit them; They will claim to have been mugged and all their money and credit cards have been stolen, therefore requiring money to help them; They will tell you they are a student and need money while they complete their university degree; They may claim to be a relative of a deceased government official and require your assistance in transferring large sums of money, promising to give you a large amount of money in return for allowing them to use your bank account.
The importance of knowing when you could be in contact with a scammer cannot be underestimated. There are several signs to look out for which may include; a vague personal description that does not match the photo; they will avoid answering questions, usually because they are sending the same message to numerous people; conversations will be repeated; the tone and style of message may change; the use of very poor grammar and spelling, although this sign alone does not mean they are a scammer as many people have spelling and grammar issues; immediate responses to your messages; they will ask you to switch to using your personal email to avoid detection by the dating website; they will claim to be in love or falling in love with you, possibly sending you a romantic poem. One of the most obvious signs to look out for is a profile photo that looks like a model, which probably is of a model, but not a picture of the person sending you messages. Scammers use photos of beautiful people because profiles with beautiful people usually receive more mail, therefore the scammers have numerous people to choose between when deciding who they are going to pursue. More often than not if a profile photo looks too good to be true, it usually is.
If you have been a victim of a scam and have sent money, unfortunately there is little chance of you recovering it. Once money has been sent, the scammer usually ends all communication with you, although there is a slight chance you may be asked to send more money. If you are concerned you are in contact with a scammer, report them immediately to the online dating website you are using and stop all correspondence with them.
In general online dating sites are completely safe, as long as you follow the safety rules and look out for the signs of a scammer. Many sites both large and small screen members and look out for scammers, but unfortunately some online dating sites allow anyone to join and are only concerned in members actively sending messages. Don’t be fooled into thinking larger paying dating sites screen members, as not all of them do.
When using any online dating website, under no circumstances should you send money to anyone or reveal your bank account details. No matter how plausible a reason may sound, never send money. Having gained your trust a scammer will take advantage of your feelings and kind nature. No matter how well you feel you know someone, be sceptical and avoid becoming a victim to an online dating scam.
Has anyone on the dating sites been contacted by an Eric Lucas?
I was on a site,doulike.com for a few months and this guy started writing me.Seemed really nice till he started asking for money,and no I didn’t send hime any.I called him once and got an automated message from his cell,turned out he was actually based in Nigeria instead of Oregon! So I stopped writing him and I was just curious if the same guy contacted anyone else out there.Thanks and Happy New Year!
nope, but different girls….get different names.
good for you for asking.He is a crime scene waiting to happen.