Black girls are very exotic and, they are a very different breed of women. There are so many stereotypes associated with black girls and, you will find the girls very exciting. Black girls have a dark skin and, they are known for their nature of being aggressive. It is very interesting how black girls tend to spark curiosity and debate. The girls can be found in all parts of the world and, the most popular black girls are African Americans. African women are known to be very calm and humble. It often becomes very difficult to tell the women apart physically because they have similar features. African American girls are children of former slaves who were brought in from Africa, many years ago. They have a very long history of struggle and final triumph. The black community in America has had to fight many fights just to be heard.
Their struggle makes a very rich history and, views on the black skin have changed significantly. This is evident with the election of the very first black president in the United States in 2008. This has just shown how far the community as a whole has come. It is very hard to divorce black women from their black community. Apart from their aggressive nature, the black women are known for their loyalty. They are dedicated family people and, a black woman will provide for her family single handedly. Their strength constantly comes up and, it has been seen from them through out the world. If you are a single man looking to date single girls who are black, you will be glad to know that you can get them very easily. All you need to do is to go online and find dating sites that play host to black women. There are a variety of sites that will ensure that you are matched only to the person you want. If you want to find some girls just for the sake friendship, you can do so. Join a social networking service. They are many and you will be shocked at the variety. This way, you can get to interact first hand with the person you are interested in.
If you want to meet real black African girls, you can visit sites that are for African dating; you will find them in plenty. There is so much culture to share with them. This way, you will have the opportunity to share these different cultures that you will find very exciting. Some of the stereotypes that you might have heard about the black women might prove to be very inconclusive. There is nothing more interesting than to experience something different. If you are interested in the pictures of such girls, the Internet will provide you with all you need. This way, you can get to see some of the beauties that this community has to offer. Make a point of also going through magazines and other media to keep up with information about the girls. They are not only beautiful but, they are also achievers in their own right. Black women have shown that they can conquer many fields. Oprah Winfrey is a proud strong black woman who has dominated talk shows, as the richest woman in America, this only shows a bit of what the girls are capable of.
Is it true that once a Black man sleeps with a White girl, he will only be compatible with White girls after?
I don’t know if this is true but it has been rumored that if a Black guy has been with a White girl, he would be all stretched out with a huge gaping butt-hole. From then on, he would only be compatible with White girls and no one else.
He can never go back to a precious Black girl again.
The race of your sexual partner has no effect. All human sexual anatomy is pretty much the same. Race does not determine penis size in men nor vaginal size in women. The mechanics of sex do not vary by race, but can by individual person, as each persons genitalia does vary within a fairly standard range.
The only sexual activities I can think of that would cause the effect you described would be manual insertion, known as fisting, or anal stretching with over-sized toys. Standard anal intercourse would not cause gaping, as the anal opening is a muscle and is quite resilient and elastic. It is accustomed to passing objects through it the size of most penises and unless forcibly over stretched and torn, it would not gape.
Please protect yourself from unwanted pregnancies and STD and use a condom unless you are are in a monogamous relationship and wish to conceive a child.
Turkey and Africa: An Islamist Misconception or a Secularist Failure?
Before 212 years, Turkey controlled an area of almost 8 million km2 in Africa; under its antecedent state form, e.g. the Ottoman Empire, vast African territories from the confines of Algeria to Somalia and the East African coast down to Tanzania were reporting to the Sultan at Istanbul, who was the Caliph of all Muslims worldwide. Ottoman-controlled territories and lands ruled by principalities that recognized the imperial authority of the Sultan totalled no less than one third of Africa.
Ottoman Empire: the Sole African Superpower
If we take into consideration the fact that at those days, the colonial penetration (Spain, Portugal, Holland, France and England) had not covered more than narrow coastlands, and if we bear in mind that the other two thirds of Africa were divided into hundreds of small African kingdoms, principalities, and independent realms, we safely conclude that the Ottoman Empire was indeed the sole African Superpower.
Quite unfortunately, the Sultan himself did not realize this geo-strategic evidence, and worse, his administration failed dramatically to conceptualize first and contextualize afterwards the ensuing policy tasks and practices.
Before Napoleon´s arrival in Alexandria (or to put it better, Abuqir), more territories were under the Sultan´s control on African soil than in Asia. The Ottoman dominions throughout the Black Continent were more sizeable than the Asiatic landmass that was under the control of the Sublime Porte.
From Oman´s and Yemen´s coasts to the Mediterranean shores of Phoenicia (criminally re-baptized ´Lebanon´ as per the evil colonial, Freemasonic interests) and Palestine,
from the Emirati and Kuwaiti coasts of the Persian Gulf to the mountains of Georgia and Abkhazia,
from Basra to the Black Sea shores of Turkey, and
from the Sinai peninsula to the Asiatic coast of Istanbul, the Ottoman territories totalled ca. 5.5 m km2 – only.
The European territories of the Ottoman Empire (the Balkans) were even smaller, although they irreversibly consisted in a very large of the European continent.
But in Africa, either directly or indirectly, the Sultan represented the supreme political and religious authority for populations undeservedly scattered today to so many fake states: Algeria, Tunisia, Mali, Niger, Chad, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Abyssinia (the modern fake state of ´Ethiopia´), Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania.
Certainly, not the entire territory of all the aforementioned modern states reported to the Istanbul Caliphate; but this does not reduce in anything the reality that the Ottoman rule controlled ca. 8 million km2 in Africa.
We have good reason to believe that they were all happy and voluntarily ascribed their lives and fates to a state that they deeply felt as theirs, although – paradoxically – its capital was outside Africa.
African Love for Islam and the Ottoman Empire
Indicatively, I mention here that the Egyptians rejected the French in 1798, and rightfully hated the cruel and criminal soldiers of Napoleon; they decisively opposed them, and when the Freemasonic tyrant of France imposed an Albanian soldier, named Muhammad Ali, as chief ruler of Egypt, the entire body of Egypt´s supreme religious, judiciary and educational institution, Al Azhar, opposed the villainous schemes and plots of the French and their puppet of Muhammad Ali. In one voice, all the sheikhs of Al Azhar denounced the French conspiracy that provided for Egypt´s secession and colonization. And all the sheikhs of Al Azhar were indigenous, Egyptians – not from another continent like the traitor Muhammad Ali…..
The aforementioned situation and the characteristic love of Africans for the civilized, peaceful and benevolent Ottoman rule was attested in dozens and hundreds of cases; in Algiers, indigenous Berbers rejected and actively opposed the French curse of colonialism that befell on them in 1830.
In Somalia, indigenous Somali elders and sheikhs opposed the evil Freemasonic English colonials and called East Africa´s greatest, most civilized and most radiant nation to epic rebellion against the barbaric soldiers and agents of the Satanic queen Victoria. This explains only partly the evil US – UK intentions of revenge carried out against Somalia over the past 20 years.
In the last years of the 19th century, the Russian officer and explorer Bulatovich who visited one of the last Oromo Kings, Aba Jefar, reported the great affection, love, esteem and respect that the faraway King had about the Ottoman Empire to which his faith and allegiance as Muslim was eternally given.
´´We renewed our interrupted conversation. The king asked me about Stambul (Turkey) and Mysyr (Egypt). He wanted to know if it was true that Stambul was the most powerful state in the world´´. More analytically: ´´ The Oromos Need Aba Jefar’s Mysticism and Piety, not an Alliance with the Incestuous Amhara´´ (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-oromos-need-aba-jefars-mysticism-and-piety-not-an-alliance-with-the-incestuous-amhara.html).
This situation is not strange at all; there was no racism and no discrimination under the Ottoman Empire throughout its African territories. Black people moved often to the Ottoman province of Arabia for pilgrimage, and there they were greatly respected; Africans travelled often to Istanbul to study and they were so respected that they were promoted to positions of instructors, professors, scholars and leading academics.
Perverse History and Falsifications: All Due to Anglo-French Freemasonic Colonialism
There is another hidden reality: colonialism in Africa is basically tantamount to a war undertaken by the Freemasonic gangsters of England and France against the Ottoman Empire. This statement would have been wrong, if at the times of the colonization there had been other African states as sizeable as the Ottoman territories on African soil; but there was none.
This hidden reality has indeed a double face; the aforementioned describes only one part of the reality. The rest is summarized as follows: colonialism in Africa is basically tantamount to a war undertaken by the Freemasonic gangsters of England and France against Islam. This statement would have been wrong, if at the times of the colonization there had been other African religions as widespread as Islam in Africa; but there was none.
Added to the number of falsifications diffused by the Anglo-French and American academia is also the false mapping of Ottoman provinces in Africa. Well-prepared in Freemasonic ateliers and Orientalist institutes, these false maps depict the Ottoman provinces of Africa as extending only alongside the Mediterranean and the Red Sea coasts; they thus exclude from the Ottoman control the inland territories that were very wide indeed. The fake Western cartography of the African Ottoman territories helped the Freemasonic vicious plans of discord dissemination, cultural disintegration, and identity loss for the hundreds of millions of people who happen to live on the said territories.
A more crucial fallacy diffused by the Anglo-French colonial authorities among their few, selected and promoted, African subordinates who helped them implement the colonial subordination of Africa is the falsehood that Islam is not an African religion. This was due to the accurate knowledge of the indigenous perception of them, of which the colonials were fully aware; the Anglo-French have always known that they were and still are alien to Africa. They have perfect understanding of the fact that they have no right to exist on African soil, and they feel indeed guilty for the dreadful, criminal and absolutely inhuman deeds they had planned to perform and did actually perform on African soil; simply they manage to hide this feeling of theirs, which is an additional revelation of their evil nature.
Islam is indeed a genuine African religion; contrarily to Islam, Western Christianity is alien in Africa. Only Orthodox Coptic Christianity has a real historicity on African soil; but the Coptic literature is abundant in rejections, refutations and anathemas against Constantinople and Rome. This irrevocable reality concludes the case for the fake missionaries who preached a fake Jesus among Africans.
Even worse for them, their initial preaching was a systematic and evil lie; they promised a moral Christian society in Africa, and they delivered colonization, natural resources´ exploitation and robbery, immorality, cultural disorientation, westernization, Freemasonry and corruption, fallacious Greco-Romano-centrist dogmas, racist Humanities, and anti-African History for Africans.
The coverage was Christian preaching and the end result was the propagation of the Freemasonic incestuous practices in Africa. The Anglo-French criminals targeted at the same time the core of African Identity and the political – religious prevalence of Islam in the African North.
Why the Ottoman Empire Lost Control of its African Provinces?
Before examining the case for a Turkish African Policy, one has to confront a key question; the response to this question is the only criterion to apply on today´s possible Turkish Africa policy making. The question concerns the reasons for which the Ottoman Empire lost control of its most sizeable part – the African provinces.
This subject was never discussed in Modern Turkey; and this reality is part of the problem, because as situation, it contradicts the new ideas and the spirit brought forth by Kemal Ataturk.
In fact, the decadence of the Ottoman Empire had started long before Napoleon anchored at Abuqir. For long historical processes like that of the rise and the fall of the Ottoman Empire, it is almost impossible to identify a date – turning point with accuracy. When the Ottoman army besieged Vienna in 1683, Istanbul was still viewed as a powerful and vast state. In reality, it was not. At that very moment, the Ottoman Empire was left behind in many sectors, particularly research and knowledge. In fact, it had already stopped coping with the rising forces of the West.
The reason the African provinces of the Ottoman Empire were lost and the reason Istanbul entered into a long period of decadence are absolutely identical. An anti-Islamic conception of the world, of Islam, and of human life itself, an evil and barbaric pseudo-theological system, and a lewd and coarse behavioural system had gradually risen to prominence.
This process was slow, and in the beginning, it did not concern the Ottoman Court; however, as the system was greatly propagated, it infiltrated the Sublime Porte and imposed its viewpoints on the Sultans, who could not (or rather feared to) oppose it without creating a great schism within Islam. This theological system is totally unrelated to the Seljuk sultanates and the early period Ottoman Empire.
But when the Sultans incorporated Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and Yemen, and furthermore expanded in Africa in 1517, the socio-religious milieu of the backward and anti-Islamic theological group became part of the Ottoman Empire and could therefore most easily and almost uninterruptedly spread throughout the vast territory.
This barbaric system was founded by a heretic and ignorant sheikh, named Ibn Taimiya, whose faith was based on an earlier ignorant, heretic, and barbaric sheikh, named Ibn Hanbal.
Both Ibn Hanbal (780 – 855) and Ibn Taimiya (1263 – 1328) were imprisoned in their times respectively, which shows that they were overwhelmingly rejected by the rulers, the intellectuals, the scholars, and the religious leaders of the peak times of Islamic Civilization.
So viciously heretic Ibn Taimiya was that the elite of the then Islamic Scholarship and Philosophy described him as introducing anthropomorphic concepts into Islam which is tantamount to sheer polytheism and reflects an effort to christianize Islam.
For a theoretical offspring of Ibn Hanbal, such darkness could only be normal.
What was even more disastrous for Islam was Ibn Taimiya´s enmity for Knowledge, Research, Erudition, Art, Imperial Power and World Hegemony. Similarly catastrophic was his disregard and ignorance of the others, his admonition for self-focus his call for ignorance of the rising competition with the West, and his behavioural reductionism which is at the origin of today´s idiotic sheikhs who teach that Islam is limited into the Coran, the Hadith, and the so-called five pillars of Islam.
The ideas of Ibn Taimiya are not ideas, and at his times, he was dealt exactly in this way.
Ibn Taimiya´s ´ideas´ turn empires to dust, Erudition to barbarism, Art to cannibalism, and desecrate any mosque and medressa (religious and academic school of the Islamic times) whereby they happen to be discussed.
It is not mere coincidence that today´s uneducated extremist sheikhs, who have read not a single page of Ibn Sina or Mohyeldin Ibn Arabi, speak with so high esteem of the ignorant and silly sheikh of the 13th century.
The diffusion of Ibn Taimiya´s pseudo-theological school in the expanded Ottoman Empire is the central reason for the Caliphate´s decadence. Although we cannot select a specific date as beginning of the decadence, we can certainly indicate a symbolic date as that of the prevalence of Ibn Taimiya´s school among the ruling elite of the Ottoman Empire.
The destruction of the Istanbul Observatory by the filthy, barbaric and pseudo-Islamic mob is the date of End of Islamic Civilization, and marks the beginning of the End of the Ottoman Empire. This occurred in 1580, just three years after the chief astronomer Taqi al din Effendi had convinced the Sultan to have it erected so that the Caliphate preserves its competitive edge over Western Europe.
The Sultan, despite his great admiration for Taqi al din Effendi, did not dare to use military force and exterminate to the last these barbaric animals, as he should have done. By opting for social peace, the Sultan allowed the flowers of evil propagate further and further until they covered the entire vast empire whose days were unquestionably numbered.
However, so great the empire was that it took more than 340 years to completely disintegrate. In parallel, the Islamic Civilization gradually disappeared, and the interest for knowledge was replaced with the misery and the barbarism of the impoverished mob – all those who limit Islam into five prayers per day, fast during Ramadan, and abstention from alcohol and premarital sex.
With the darkness of Ibn Taimiya spreading overwhelmingly, no correct judgement could be effectuated as regards the possible targets of the French and the English, the internal socio-political and cultural developments in the two countries, and the eventual effective defence line that the Ottoman Empire could adopt against them. The sheikhs of darkness advised the Sultan to stupidly disregard England and France but Allah would save him…….
When the first Orientalists reached India, Iran, Egypt and Africa, it was too late for the Sultan (as well as the Shah and the Great Mogul) to react and preserve their territories from the foreign attack which was fed by the ignorance spread throughout the Caliphate (as well as Safevid / Qajar Iran and Mogul India) by the idiotic followers of Ibn Taimiya. In few decades, the Orientalists collected an enormous amount of data and information about the historical past and the terrible situation of darkness that prevailed over all the territories controlled by Istanbul, Ispahan and Delhi.
It would merely take a few more decades for them and their disciples to setup an environment of total dependence of the undefended and ignorant Muslim populations who were thus exposed to colonialism, further dependence, lack of identity, and impossibility to react due to ignorance.
This situation has prevailed until today; it was only opposed by Kemal Ataturk in the Ottoman territories that he managed to save out of the vicious Freemasonic control of the Anglo-French. But the founder of Modern Turkey ruled peacefully only for ca. 15 years, and dedicated his energy into the rebuilding and the reassessment of the territories under his control.
Unfortunately, his associates, disciples and followers failed to expand his thought and use it as an analytical instrument for understanding what happened in the other Ottoman territories that were under colonial control in 1935 or 1945, and what Turkey´s response to that situation should be.
Conventionalism and conformism prevailed, and convenient modesty became the supreme advisor; subsequently, the Kemalist establishment denied to study how to carry out Kemal Ataturk´s policies on Ottoman territory outside Turkey. Quite unfortunately, this would be badly needed not only for the political establishment of Ankara but also for the colonized populations in Baghdad, Damascus, Beirut, Jerusalem, Sanaa, Medina, Algiers, Tunis and elsewhere.
The Turkish secular establishment, by disregarding Africa, simply betrayed Kemal Ataturk himself; had they made of him the example of modern state founder for the Berbers, the Tuareg, the Hadhramawtis, the Aramaeans of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon, the Palestinians, the Egyptians, the Oromos, the Somalis, the Afars and the Sudanese, they would have offered really strong chances for development and independence to those nations whose ancestors shared the same, wealthy, politically independent, highly civilized and human state as theirs.
Today´s Turkey has an obligation to the Black Continent (if not in its entirety, at least for all the Ottoman territories in Africa): to help all these nations achieve identity preservation, cultural integrity, national self-determination, and historical reassessment without the presence of the evil Anglo-French colonials. In this regard, the Turkish government will be an auspicious ally of oppressed nations, persecuted ethno-religious groups, and all those who reject the fake borderlines that currently exist in Africa.
There is only one wish for all the African Muslims whose ancestors lived on Ottoman territory or Ottoman dependencies´ lands: One Secular State for the entire North-eastern Africa that underscores its Hamitic – Kushitic historicity and its Islamic faith. On this subject, I will expand more specifically in a forthcoming article.
Picture: the fake borders of the Ottoman Empire in Africa have been drawn by colonial historiographers in their evil and desperate effort to minimize the unprecedented Ottoman prevalence throughout Africa. From: http://staff.harrisonburg.k12.va.us/~cwalton/World Two/ottomanmap.jpg
Vibeline – African American Dating Service
Valentine chocolate has activists’ blood boiling
Valentine chocolates may become the new blood diamonds.
The first edition of this article was titled “Yoruba and Benin Kingdom The Missing Gap of History” following the Statement credited to Oba Ereduwa Omonoba Polopolo, that the Yoruba race originated from Benin Kingdom, was very rich in details and calls for re-examination by historians of high repute from all the Nigerian Universities and recognized institutions not from uneducated and bias sources of chambers or shrines of some Obas or traditional rulers as presently being envisaged or contemplated. The statement from Ooni of Ife disputing the fact of Oba of Benin was not strong enough or capable of influencing any academic exercise. The statement from the two kings and the follow up from Oba of Lagos and host of others had generated lots of discussion worldwide but some questions still remain unanswered. This has given this writer the opportunity to further ask questions hopefully it will lead to getting the solution about the source of the Yoruba and Edo with the publication of this second edition now titled “Ile Ife the final Resting place of History“.
I was often fascinated by the different versions of uncoordinated folk stories we were told about the origin of the Yoruba. As a very young Yoruba man from Abeokuta I was told Oduduwa was the first man created by God just like the Bible said Adam and Eve were the first to be created by God. The Bible says Cain the only surviving child of Adam and Eve went to another city called Nod to marry his wife. The question is who created the wife, the wife parent or the family of the in-law if any. Just like I asked in my innocent mind as a student in the primary school then who created Oduduwa and how did Oduduwa marry his wife? Where did parent of the wife of Oduduwa come from? My Teacher never told me the answer. We were even told Oduduwa was the son of one Lamurudu from Far East most likely Saudi Arabia and that some of Yoruba cousin can be found in Uganda infact they call the Yorubas in Uganda Akarabas, which is true. Most of these uncoordinated conflicting stories were very difficult to prove or be binding on history for any academic minds.
The Genesis of the Yorubas
Oduduwa had sixteen children we were told and the eldest was Orangun of Ila and the Egbas in Abeokuta were descendants of the female child of Oduduwa named Alaketu. None ever disputed the fact that Oranmiyan the last born of Oduduwa also ruled the Benin Kingdom. Why did Benin or Edos allowed the last child of Oduduwa to be made a king over them or his descendants through Eweka 1st, if there was no blue blood connection? Oba of Benin gave a detail account of fact of history that are very difficult to dispute. The Yoruba share so many things in common with the Edo’s in names and culture, which must be part of the reason why it is very difficult to dispute the version Omo noba polo polo Oba of Benin.
Again, in the Bible, Adam and Eve who were believed to be the first human creation by God never told or shown Cain the only surviving child the Garden of Eden where God created them, just like Oduduwa never shown the place and real evidence how he was created by God. The idea of a rain and dove as the method of earth creation sounds more like magic than real. Archeologically, the Yoruba race is not more than 2000 years meaning other tribes excited before the Oduduwa appearance. None availability of any other serious fact to negate this lend credibility to Oba Benin’s version in which he the Oba of Benin himself has not proved positively where the Edo’s also came from. Did the Edo’s also come from heaven? Or emerged from the Igbos that often regarded themselves as the lost tribe of Israel? Why does is necessary to bury the head of any late Oba of Benin at Ile Ife or why is it compulsory to receive the blessing of Ooni before a King or Oba is crowned in Benin. All these are missing gaps of facts and history, which the academic institutions must trash.
Aside from the above both versions of History from Oba of Benin and Yoruba agreed that Oramiyan the last son of Oduduwa returned to Ife from Benin after he installed his son, Eweka the first as Oba of Benin after he became frustrated with the strange land. He met his father Oduduwa who was very advanced in age and blind more also, all properties had been shared and distributed among his fifteen brothers and sisters. Alternatively, seven brothers according to Oba of Benin, Oduduwa was at a dilemma on what to do because he assumed Benin Kingdom would be enough inheritance for Oranmiyan.
Both versions of history agreed that the name Benin meant “the land of the annoyed” because Oranmiyan left the place in annoyance. Could it be said that Benin had another name before Oranmiyan went there? What was the name? Does it have anything to do with the destruction of the Edo Empire or can we say Oranmiyan actually founded the Benin Kingdom, which must be the reason why he changed the name of the city to Benin? Oba of Benin comment on the Edo’s checking the secrecy of Oranmiyan led to his abdication of the thrown for his son is not convincing enough taking into consideration the attitude of Oranmiyan who was believed to be ruthless, one would have thought he would have handled the issue in different method.
The Returns of Oranmiyan
Oduduwa found an easy way out to appease the disgruntled son Oranmiyan he gave him, his staff as a symbol to present to his brothers and sisters to be able to collect ten percent of revenue derived from yearly harvest through out Yoruba Land. With this, Oranmiyan was able to collect over 150 percent of all the returns throughout the uncoordinated kingdom. Oduduwa also grudgingly agreed to allow his last son Oranmiyan to be king at Ile Ife after his death. The reason for this was unknown as this was against the customs and traditions of giving priority to first child or son who was Ila of Irangun.
On the other hand, could it be said that Orangun was too afraid to challenge his junior brother or Oranmiyan was indeed the senior? Or could the version of history that actually claimed Okanbi as the only son of Oduduwa was right and Oranmiyan was indeed the same person as Okanbi? This is a fact of history the present Orangun of Ila should clarify. His silence amounts to selling his birthright to his junior brother if he was indeed the first-born and why did all other 14 brothers and sisters fail to do something? Some even say Oranmiyan was not a direct son but a son of Okanbi. Some even argued that Okanbi was the same person as Oranmiyan but Okanbi literarily meant only child if that should be the case it will amount to a conclusion that Oduduwa had only one child while his only child Okanbi gave births to the 16 children that became the pillar of Yoruba race this is another area the historians must explore.
Oduduwa was primarily a skillful priest and voodoo person who the Oba of Benin argued picked up the powers in the forest. Who were his teachers? Was it by demons or gods? Or by the power of abcadabra. Who verified how Oduduwa acquired his powers? None and how did Oba of Benin come to this conclusion? It is often said rituals and sacrifices is an everyday issue at Ife except for one day and that is never made public probably the only day Odududua took vacation. Oba of Benin must explain the reason why the Head of all previous Oba of Benin were buried in a cave at the shrine of Oduduwa at IFE.
Origin of Ooni Title
We have read and heard stories that in one of the ritual ceremonies where nobody was allowed to be outside, an unidentified foreign woman of no means of tracing her background was captured and was to be used as sacrifice for the gods. She was later spared because she was found to be pregnant beside; it was against custom at that time to use a pregnant woman for sacrifice. The child from the woman was dedicated to the gods and acted in an assistant capacity to the aging Oduduwa in his day-to-day ritual and voodoo job. The child was named Ooni: meaning, “This is Spared One”. This cannot be totally disputed because the Yoruba’s often named children after events surrounding their births. Nobody apart from this simple understanding of Ooni has given any other meaning interpretation of the title. This writer did not create this meaning every Yoruba man or woman grew up with this assumption. It may not necessary be the reason.
After the death of Oduduwa his son, Oranmiyan was invited to take over the job of his father, which was primarily ritual and voodoo, as well as traditional ruler of Ile Ife. Oranmiyan refused because he had succeeded in building an economically viable place at Oyo Ile with administratively sound method of government around the Oyomesi council in chief and it would be very degrading to leave and move to Ile Ife to be involved in ritual daily sacrifices exercises. In the light of that assumptions Oranmiyan gave conditions that he must be buried at Ife to symbolize his right to Ife thrown. Ooni the Assistant to Oduduwa in the day-to-day ritual sacrifice exercise continued with Odua’s job while he continued with supervision from Oyo Ile. It was that condition Ooni the son of the slave woman that was captured and dedicated to the gods who was assisting Oduduwa continued the work of Oduduwa at Ife. This is the reason why ALafin of Oyo will never accept Ooni of Ife as a king or a superior in any Yoruba gathering of Obas. The creation of Oshun State out of Oyo State was the major events that separated the two kings in one of the sittings of Obas in the old Oyo State the Chairmanship issue was almost a national problem that which was exploited by the political leaders of both the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) and national Party of Nigeria (NPN) at that time.
Ooni assumed superiority was a British creation because the King of England assumed a king at Ife the assumed cradle of Yoruba must be superior to all Obas just like the British did in Abeokuta by imposing Alake superiority over other Obas at Abeokuta. In case of Egbas Sorunke who led the Egbas from Ibadan to the present Abeokuta was from Oke Ona, which Oba Tejuoso is the King today. This is the reason why there was conflict between late Alake of Abeokuta and Osile of Oke Ona. In fact both the Akes and Oke Onas met Owu’s in the southwest area of the city. Power and control in Abeokuta was not evenly distributed among the five kings. The British creation has led to communal disagreement among the city’s five kings. Including the Ibaras and Gbaguras the side of late Moshood Abiola. Although the late Alake of Egbaland was very technical and tactical in the way he cautiously curtailed other Egba Obas to accepting his leadership that can not be said of Ooni who does one thing better by allying himself with the government at the center in and out of the state all time a strategy Alaafin must have to adopt.
IFE The Final Resting Place of Oranmiyan
Why was Oranmiyan buried at Ife not at Oyo Ile or Oyo Igboho? What is the meaning for Opa Oranyan symbol at Ife today? Except to confirm his right to the thrown or seat of Oduduwa. If Ooni was not a true son or direct descendant of the sixteen children of Odua or a relation of Okanbi how did he get his title so recognized that it became the symbol of Yoruba center of unity and not Alaafin the much feared Iku babayeye? Some historians will argue that Ooni was just his name that became his title. If Ooni was a direct son of Oduduwa how come he could not be traced to the 16 children of Oduduwa? Did the first Ooni pay tributes to Alaafin or Oranmiyan like all other Yoruba Obas and Baales (village Heads) at that time or was he exempted from taxes or levies? If not. Why? Those emerging empires that refused to pay were destroyed or sold away as slaves. The practice to sell any opposition as slaves stopped after the Oyo Empire was destroyed. It is rather difficult to accept the Ooni’s version as against the Omonoba Polo polo but then Oba of Benin’s version was not full proof. Has any Oba of Benin from history been a member of governing council at Ife? If yes. Why? And why must Oba of Benin’s head be buried at Ife if Ile Ife is not the source for the two tribes? Oba of Benin must be courageous to explain this fact of history.
Oranmiyan’s Role In Yoruba History
Oranmiyan from history was a belligerent person. A war hero and where his brothers and sister failed to give the yearly ten percent duty as agreed with the staff of Oduduwa he used force. He later appointed his representatives in each of the kingdoms of Yoruba to monitor the returns, thus the creation of Oyo Empire that lead to the end of the kingdom Oduduwa created which was not properly coordinated. There was no proper channel of control during Odua. Oyo Empire gave the Yoruba race the much respect and proper foundation in the south of Sahara. The new empire grew with amazing rapidity throughout West Africa and was like the Ghana or Shonghai Empire of the medieval history in the south of Sahara.
One of the strategies of the Oyo Empire was engagement in slavery. It was a tactical way to weaken opposition among the Yoruba’s and those captured. Oranmiyan and his descendants were absolute in control and management. Infact, the word Kabiyesi that was later adopted by subsequent Alafin from the time of Sango oko Oya in Oyo meant absolutism the king could never be wrong. Such was the fear and power of Alafin throughout Yoruba land.
Oranmiyan’s administration was the best in Africa and could be likened to the British system of Administration during the colonial government. The Empire expanded up to the present Benin republic. Those who escaped the control of Alaafin are the Yoruba’s living in Benin Republic, which was formerly Dahomey. On the East side there was no historical record of any interference between the father and the son the rulers in Benin Kingdom. The reason for this was not known but it will amount to fighting yourself if Oranmiyan had to wage war of control over Benin. Oba of Benin Omonoba Polopolo did not explain the reason for the prolong truce between Benin and Oyo Empire. Spiritual contact was established with each Benin King’s head buried at Ife and spiritual approval from Ife before any Oba is crowned at Benin? Why is this so if Benin was the source how come the source goes to the Ife for approval of final rest of the head of Benin Obas? Ile Ife in actual fact demonstrated its superiority by having the head of Oranmiyan himself.
At least there was no record of history of any transaction between father and son commercially or any known tribal or communal war between Yoruba and Benin Kingdom while Benin Kingdom continued to progress and Oyo Empire continue to expand to the west coast. In Lagos, there could not be a clash, it was a place of reunion for Edo’s and Yoruba it was said Eko, which is Lagos, and in our local dialect is a Benin word. Why did Oranmiyan and his descendants fail to expand towards the East of the empire, which would have been a clash with Edo’s? Was it a mutual agreement or respect or tactical error or oversight in the expansionism of Yoruba Empire?
The fall of Oyo Empire
Oyo Empire later suffered from over expansion while some local heroes started to emerge to challenge the authority of the Oyo kingdom or that of the Alafin of Oyo. Among them was the Lisabi Agboagbo Akala who liberated the Egbas from Oyo Empire to create a fearless Egba Kingdom. Lisabi was never a king in fact he was murdered by the Alake of Egbaland because of his popularity after he used his Aaro o method to form a rally point and effectively destroying the mirth surrounding the Alaafin control in Egbaland The Egba emerged as a new power block in the south west. And major control of the slave market at Badagry and women like Madam Tinubu from Owu Abeokuta moved to Lagos known as Eko to further consolidate the gain of slave market route.
Egbas as a kingdom with its own capital at Abeokuta in the present Ogun State with a conglomeration of five kings with its own National Anthem “Lori Oke ati Pele” was merged with Nigeria by the British Empire after 1914. In addition, Lagelu emerged from Ibadan, Ogendegbe Agbogungboro from Ijeshaland and Shou of Ogbomosho and Ilorin through the deserter Chief of Army Staff of Oyo who was killed by Alimi a Fulani thus the end of Oyo Empire. The new empires moved toward western civilization with sophisticated weapon while the Oyo remained old fashioned and did not modernize its weapons. The attack from the Sokoto Caliphate from the North finally nailed the coffin of the Oyo Empire. The collapse of the Oyo Empire led to the Yoruba Wars, which was never concluded until the British finally took over Nigeria in 1914 with the amalgamation of North and Southern Nigeria by Lord Luggard. The present Oyo town is a shadow has Old Oyo town, which is still visible at Oyo Igboho. Oyo town in the present Oyo State is just a new creation to symbolize the memory of the Old.
The Egbas and Ijebus took over the control of southwest towards the Atlantics because of lucrative slave trade and closeness to the white man. The emergence of western civilization further weakened the Old Oyo empire, the empire collapsed and the ruminants of it can still be found at the old site, the irony of it is Alafin of Oyo in the present Oyo town continue to live in the memory of his ancestors glory of the Old Oyo empire. Alafin has never made spiritual contact with old Oyo town nor effort to salvage the relics of history, which should be used as fundamental tourist place in Yoruba history
Ile Ife The Final Resting Place of History
Ooni who is not a direct son or descendants of Oduduwa may not necessarily be considered viable in this discussion. Alafin of Oyo who is a descendant of the acceptable link between Yoruba and Edo must examine his place in history and that of his senior brother Orangun of Ila the first son who had disappeared into history because he never challenged Oranmiyan. The abdication of the thrown is a loss of right for Oranmiyan to his son in Benin but if the son (Eweka) and his descendants according to history continue to respect tradition and be buried at Ife or received blessing before being crowned then we can conclude that Ife is superior to Benin and Edo’s must have infact originated from Ife?
The question is this. Can a son be greater than his father can? Or can a river be greater than its source? No. Otherwise it will dry. The source of Yoruba from Benin although appeared to be very authentic as presented by Oba Eredua than Saudi Arabia or Lamurudu, which cannot be traced, traced in Saudi Arabian history. But the fact of history of allegiance of Oba of Benin to Ile Ife the cradle of Yoruba race before being crowned and after death is an indication that Ife is the source of both the Yoruba’s and Edo but the Yoruba’s and historians must come up with a very scientific and foolproof history to support this argument. This is an area the Ooni and other Yoruba writers have not defended. The argument of Professor Ajayi was not detailed or courageous enough. The professor wrote as if he was afraid to offend both the Yoruba and the Edos as against the fact, which would have helped the issue unless the Professor has no answer to the problem.
Alternatively, can we write off Alafin of Oyo from this discussion because his descendant failed to head the thrown at Ile Ife when Oranmiyan was called? No. Some will say since he was buried at Ife to symbolize his rights to the thrown or why did all his brothers fail to challenge his right to the Ife thrown if he indeed was the last born maybe, that part of history was right that Oranmiyan was the first born not the last as mentioned by Oba of Benin. They’re so many unanswered questions of history. The answer is not if we will offend ourselves or change the place of Edo’s or Yoruba in history but who we are and where we were coming from. It is often said that it is a taboo to bury a king in exile. Ile Ife from all indications and by having the heads of all the late kings of Benin and that of Oranmiyan himself buried at Ile Ife to this writer is the source of Edos and Yoruba and this fact must not be distorted with sentiments.
i have chatted to a few and they are all seem sincere and have love to give But i do wonder if there is a dark area they are hiding and not want anyone to know about
Let’s not ascribe personality characteristics too closely to national traits. There are pleasant and unpleasant people the world over. Be aware that many African women, not just from Benin, are looking to marry Americans, Europeans and others as a way of finding a better standard of living abroad. I say this as someone who is an anti-racist campaigner, and sympathetic to their situation. However, I know of too many people (men and women) who have been fooled into a marriage that was genuine on their part, but really a sham on the part of their spouse. Sooner or later the horrible truth dawned. I talk from personal experience here too – lol. I also know of lots of successful mariages too, so it ‘s not all bad – just be careful, and trust your instincts. If it seems too good to be true, well that’s because it is.
African has one big day of celebration and that is the day of the African child that is celebrated on the month of June. This day is celebrated to remember the struggles the boys and girls have hard to endure while living on this great land. Long before civilization, children especially boys were the ones given responsibility of looking after the domestic animals. Girls were given domestic responsibilities while men and women took care of looking after the family needs.
Africa is able to bring together many children on this day. During such celebrations, the children have the opportunity to show case their talents. A lot of activities like drama, music, poems, and dances are performed. This showcases the potential the children have in this modern society. A lot of talent has been tapped during such times and many children have emerged to be top class actors or musicians. Other activities that occur during this day are cleaning activities, visiting the mentally handicapped children, visiting the sick, donating to children homes and others.
Africa has succeeded in producing top class scholars who have written so many books about the life of the African child. These books are used as set books in the national exams and this helps to mould them socially, culturally and economically. Through these educational forums are organized and students from other countries are invited for exchange programme. This coming together to help steer a common goal forward has ensured that the culture of the people from this region is maintained and passed on to the future generations.
Why does OPRAH have a private school in AFRICA and not the USA?
I saw on tv this morning that OPRAH has started a school for girls in africa. You think she would start here and then go abroad to sort out others. This might tell you something about how she feels about her own people in the USA. Sorry but I dont blame her for helping someone who knows what its like to not have anything.
The line of thinking in your question shows the pure ignorance and cluelessness that many American people have about the poor conditions in other countries especially Africa.
America has a public school system. We have a free education, and medical clinics. The African education system pales in comparsion to even our worst. Inner city children get tons of money donated to them, food stamps, welfare checks, all kinds of things handed too them…AND THEY DO NOT APPRECIATE IT!!!!!!!
Sorry to generalize here, but I am tired of inner city America parents looking for handouts. You have a free education and don’t take advantage of it. Maybe if some of them would have taken advantage of it, they would know why she would choose to built a school in Africa.
I’ve sponsored children in both the U.S. and third world countries, and my third world children are SOOOOOOOO much more grateful because basic neccessities are hard to come by. They are extremely poor, so poor that most Americans have no clue how they live.
My American poor children, instead of asking for basic neccessities, wanted things like fancy electronic games or cell phones, etc. or they end up dropping out of school, getting pregnant and what not. So I totally understand what Oprah is saying.
People in third world countries, appreciate everything we take for granted. And I applaud Oprah for building a school for girls in Africa, an AIDS ravaged country. American women have more than enough opportunity to make something of themselves in this country, but many particularlly those of color (like myself), choose to squander it.
Ethiopia is located on the east coast of Africa, and is home to one of the oldest places where humans were thought to live. Scientists believe that it was from Ethiopia that prehistoric man traveled to the Middle East and other countries surrounding it.
Ethiopia is rich in culture and history, and is just beginning to recover from a major famine that rocked the country for more than two decades.
Did you know that some of the most beautiful women in the world are from this small eastern African nation? Are you interested in dating a woman from Ethiopia and possibly making her your mail order bride?
Here is some information on hot Ethiopian girls and how to date one
What Ethiopian women want: These eastern African women love a strong man, and are expecting to find a man who will both protect them and love them. If you are really interested in dating one of these beauties you better be sure that you are a strong capable man that will really take care of them
Choose wisely: There is no short supply of stunningly beautiful Ethiopian women. When you get more than one hot Ethiopian girl interested in you it may be a good idea to look over their profiles carefully. Do not just go by the fact they have a pretty face and nice smile. There is more to a woman that her outwardly appearance and this holds true for Ethiopian women as well.
Do some research: Since you are interested in someone from Ethiopia, you need to learn all you can about the country and culture. This will show your possible bride that you genuinely want to know all about where she comes from and this desire to know about her country will impress her.
Honesty is the best policy: If you truly want an Ethiopian woman to be your wife than you need to be honest with her about who you are.
Ethiopian women are very big about honesty and the last thing you want to do is present yourself as someone other than who you are.
Ethiopia is an amazing country and so are the women that come from it. If you are looking to date a hot Ethiopian woman and possibly marry her than you need to really work at it.
Remember, any woman no matter where she is from deserves to be treated right and cherished. Treat any woman like how you yourself would want to be treated and everything will turn out just fine.
Ethiopian Dating Websites
There are many dating services available that allow men to meet women from all over the world. The Internet offers many opportunities to connect with women that live beyond the borders of your home nation. Many men like to date foreign women because they are more willing to please a man and less degraded by the negative aspects of modern feminism.
Some of the most beautiful and popular women on these dating sites are from Ethiopia.
Ethiopian dating is much like dating women from other parts of the world. These women are known through all of Africa for being some of the most beautiful women on the continent. Many of these women are searching for Western men. They hope to meet a man with a stable career and lifestyle who is looking for a wife.
These Ethiopian girls have high hopes that they will be able to change the circumstances of their lives. Many of them wish to leave their home country and begin a new life and romance in America or Europe.
When you check out the website for Ethiopian Dating you may think that you are looking at pictures of Ethiopian Models, but rest assured that these are actual and everyday Ethiopian girls. Their extreme beauty and attractiveness makes them appear as if they are professional models.
Once you find some women that interest you, you can click on their photos in order to view more pictures. You can then read their description of themselves and learn more about them. These sites also allow you to begin chatting with the women over the Internet. Chats can be performed in private areas and you will even be allowed to send gifts. Ethiopian dating is a fun way to meet attractive and exotic women that live in a far-off land.
Beware of African Dating Scams
Of course, there are many sites offering Ethiopian girls that are not legitimate. These sites simply wish to take your money and waste your time. Be certain that you are using a reputable site that is not involved in human trafficking. Many Ethiopian Dating sites are for real and can aid you in meeting a lovely, Ethiopian girl.
Many of the girls that advertise on these sites are hoping that a man will fly them to a new country for love and romance. They are willing to do nearly anything to make this dream a reality. You have nothing to lose by signing up for Ethiopian dating today and saying where the adventure leads.
12 Ways to Tell if That Internet Chat Partner is a Scammer, Part 1
“Hello, dear.” The background of the message box starts raining pink hearts and a picture of a voluptuous girl in her twenties appears.
“Hello,” you respond.
“I’ve missed you dear, how have you been?”
Let’s say you’re a lonely widower and you subscribe to an Internet messaging service such as yahoo or msn. You are approached by somebody named “sweet_natasha”.
She asks to be “added”, and you do so, thinking this might be the beginning of something interesting. You go through the initial motions of “hi, how are you, asl, where do you live,” etc. and begin to talk.
Regardless of what you tell them, you can say and do nothing wrong, and as you get deeper into the conversation you begin to get…emotionally…involved. They ask for photos of you, or want you to get onto a webcam.
At first you get flattery and sentimental expressions such as “how much they missed you” when you log on, and “when can they talk to you again” when you log off.
If you think this new found relationship seems to good to be true…it probably is…
A brief history of scams
Scams are as old as mankind. Perhaps the earliest con job was recorded in Genesis when Jacob cheated Esau out of his birthright by disguising himself with a woolen shirt (his father was blind, Jacob was a “smooth” man and Esau was hairy). When his father Isaac, who was almost blind, felt the woolen cloak Jacob offered him, he thought it was his older brother Esau and gave him the family inheritance.
In the subsequent 5000 years or so, scam artists have continued to soak the unwary. Medieval con artists duped wealthy patrons into paying ransom fees to get fictional sons of nobility out of prison. Snake oil salesmen in the 1800’s sold worthless, and sometimes dangerous, “cures”, and donations to non-existent charities and fraudulent investment schemes have been solicited through the Postal Service since it was founded.
Blinding the Victim
Various scams, including the now famous “Nigerian 419 Scam”, have found victims through email spam. In case you’re not familiar with this particular hoax, it begins with a story about multi-millions trapped in a foreign country, usually an African nation, which cannot be retrieved unless you supply a bank account and money to pay off officials, fill out paperwork, and cover fees. Your reward is usually 20% of the gross amount, which will be deposited in your bank account. Of course, you must provide all of the account information to the scammer.
Others include “get rich quick” schemes, home based business pyramid scams, “become a representative of our firm” proposals — too many to list here.
Most are based in the assumed avarice of the victim. When presented with an opportunity to make a lot of money with very little or no effort in a short space of time, it’s hoped that the target will become so blinded they will abandon common sense and fall into the scammer’s trap.
Keeping Up With Technology
Scammers have kept up with technology, advancing from old fashioned “word of mouth” to mail fraud. In the late 1980’s and 1990’s through the Internet email “spam” came into being.
By obtaining email lists through various nefarious means, scammers are able to tell their story to an almost unlimited number of people. Spam blockers, however, have made this much more difficult, and scammers have found a new tool: Instant Messaging.
Making That Vital Connection
By posing as someone looking for an online dating relationship, or as someone looking for a legitimate employee or partner in a business, Internet scammers can use instant messaging to make a vital, personal connection with their targets.
Internet messaging allows the scammer to make contact with online chatters, and through nicknames like “sweet_natasha”, “lovely_beautiful_woman”, or “sincere_older_man” begin a relationship that is going to result not in just a lost identity or a raided bank account, but most probably a broken heart.
The African scammers, usually from Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and other countries, haven’t quite gotten their technique down yet. For older men they will pose as a young girl looking for a husband in the United States with a sad story about how everyone in their household is married and they can’t find a husband, or they are a “fashion designer” or a model looking for work, or some other, almost plausible story.
Women are approached with chatters bearing male nicknames, and may soon find themselves engaged in deep conversations with the most wonderful man they have ever met.
The technique, here, is to blind a lonely person with a fantasy relationship and hook them emotionally. Once the scammer is reasonably convinced the target has taken the bait, he or she will attempt to set the hook and reel them in…
In Part 2 of this series, I’ll discuss some of the characteristics of instant messaging scammers and how to spot them.
How To Find A Nigerian Bride
Huhu Online Feb 20
Slave Trade! Children Bought And Sold In Nigeria
African Women Scholarships – Free Registration for $10,000 Scholarship Drawing
African Women Scholarships are available for qualifying students. We’ve listed a couple of African Women Scholarships you can take advantage of to help your financial situation. For better chances of winning more scholarship money, do your own search online for scholarships you may qualify for.
ScholarshipZone.com has a $10K scholarship drawing just about every month. The requirements to apply are that you must be at least 18 years old and live in the United States. A quick and easy registration form on their site is all it takes for you to enter the scholarship drawing. Register soon so you will not miss the deadline.
The Higher Reach scholarship program by Walmart is something else to check out. Walmart associates can get a $3,000 scholarship. If you get the fellowship, you will need to work at the writing center for three years.
The Walmart Associate Scholarship also provides scholarship money for eligible applicants. The scholarship provids $3,000 to Walmart associates or dependents of associates. To get the scholarship, applicants need to have a 2.5 or more GPA and show financial need.
You should apply to all the scholarships you qualify for. So don’t wait around until it’s too late, get started today.
A common mistake college students make when applying for scholarships is to only apply for a handful. And second, this will give you even more time to apply for other scholarship programs that you would otherwise not apply for.
Central African Republic: Witness Describes Child Soldiers in Bemba’s Militia
A witness this week stated that war crimes accused Jean-Pierre Bemba used child soldiers during his militia’s intervention in the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2002. Testifying for the second day on Friday, the ‘Witness 42â-‘ described how he saw “many” minors among the Congolese troops who entered the CAR capital Bangui on November 7, 2002.
Repositioning Gender Parity in Education: Assessing the participation of girls in secondary school education in Uganda
Repositioning Gender Parity in Education: Assessing the participation of girls in secondary school education in Uganda
Secondary school education has a long history in Uganda. Mission schools were established in the 1890s, and in 1924 the government opened the first secondary school for Africans. However, by 1950, the government operated only three secondary schools; three others were privately funded, and 47 were operated by religious organizations. After independence in 1962, many villages, especially in the south, built schools, hired teachers, and appealed for, and received, government assistance to operate their own schools. Although over the years, the Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES) has provided increased assistance to covering secondary school costs in an attempt to increase opportunities for participation, overall participation and particularly for girls is still inadequate, and varies in nature and degree from one region or community to another. Yet, educating girls is among the most important investments a country can make to promote long-term social and economic development. The participation of girls in secondary education is beneficial at the individual, family, community and national levels. Benefits include opportunities for a University education, improved health status of the children at the family level, increased employment opportunities, increased ability to engage in gainful livelihood interventions.
However, access and participation in secondary school education is still a challenge for many students in Uganda especially girls. There still exist significant variations between locations, within sub counties, across income groups as well as religions. Such differences are clearly highlighted in the USAID-supported school mapping exercise that was conducted in 2005 referred to in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (2007). Most notably, girl’s completion rates are still very low in most third world countries. The transition rates from primary to secondary school has never gone beyond fifty percent and notes that although 80 percent of all pupils who sit exams pass, only fifty percent get places at secondary or technical schools.
There have been previous studies focusing on establishing the link between girl’s participation in secondary school education and related barriers. For example Byamugisha (2007) researched on the factors influencing transition of students from primary to secondary school. Although the study points out very important factors that affect secondary school participation, the focus is placed on the financial cost of secondary school education and the limited number of schools as the main influences.
This study leaves gaps for the proposed study to address, specifically the fact that the study was general and focused on both boys and girls, the factors considered in this study did not include the independent variables proposed in this study namely home backgrounds, proximity to a secondary school, religion and past schools. The proposed study intends to address the theoretical gaps. Baine’s (2006) work focuses on the link between poverty and girl’s participation in secondary school education. While the study found that girls school attendance and completion rates were very low compared to their male counterparts, the study focused on Uganda as a country. The proposed study seeks to bridge the gaps that still exist in the situational, geographical and theoretical contexts.
Participation is defined by several scholars simply to mean equity in access; ensuring equal opportunities for all those who complete primary school level, eliminating existing barriers to enrollment into secondary schools and overall increase in the transition rate of girls from primary to secondary school. For example, not only considering the Primary Leaving Examination scores as a yard stick for secondary school enrollment. In this study, “participation of girls in secondary school education” will consider current enrollment of girls in secondary schools. A “factor” is any of the things that cause or influence a situation. In this study, the factors to consider are home background, proximity to school, religion and past school. The factors affecting girl’s participation in secondary education in different contexts, depth and breadth and as noted by Bakkabulindi (2007) these include religion Lubega, (1997); home background ( Eremu 1999; Malinga 2004 July 19; Nsangi, 2004).
In Uganda, there still exist disparities between boys and girls access and participation in secondary school education. The reasons why are both social and economic: girls must often help earn the family’s livelihood; school calendars do not necessarily match up with local cycles of agrarian life; schools are located far from villages; and security issues threaten girls’ safety. Girls of the poorest and most marginalized segments of the population – including orphans and other vulnerable children, girls from fishing villages, and children affected by HIV/AIDS – are most at risk. Girls from these groups are even less likely to participate in school, and the female dropout rate increases at a higher rate than males with each grade while those that do complete the cycle tend to score lower than their male counterparts. The lower rates of completion and poorer performance of girls relative to boys is a result of a number of structural and attitudinal factors, which include traditional gender responsibilities, gender-stereotyped expectations and even gender-based violence.
The challenges of reconciling boy and girl child education in Africa are quite numerous. Firstly, the greatest challenges lies in the fact that most African societies place due regard to custom. But much of the indigenous custom does not favor the progress of the woman. Girls, in the traditional social systems, are not supposed to get formal education. In Lagoro Sub-county, Pader district of Uganda chiefs and elders have burred girls from attending school simply because they think girls should only be ripe for early marriage. This landmark reality is deeply constraining girl child education and there is need to scale up interventions in this area.
Economic impoverishment and the fact that most children have to walk long distances to the schools where they study from have also accounted for the rapid low participation of girls in education. Consequently, the continued little access to education for girls will lead to stagnation in productive systems through the economies of most African governments. Women contribute the greatest share to GDP growth in most African economies. In Uganda, of the 55% contribution from the agricultural sector, Women contribute 75%. Hence, it would be more appealing if such women are educated in greater numbers so as to gainfully increase on productive prospects of countries. Governments as a strategy have encouraged Universalization of education so as to increase girl child opportunities but still they intake rate is low.
Participation here means scaling up equal opportunities for both boys and girls and trying to educate the community of the need to encourage girl child education. If nations encourage equal education then the countries will see fundamental economic landmarks because opportunities improve capacity. In this global village, it is incumbent upon all stakeholders to fight marginalization and call for equal opportunities for all gender groups so as to civilize society. There is nothing so real than providing educational opportunities to the masses.
List of references
Bakkabulindi (2007), Factors affecting access to high education, the case of Kisubi Brothers Center of Uganda Martyrs University
Albert Byamugisha (2007) Quality Imperative, Uganda Launches Secondary school Education for All, Issue II
Doris Kakuru (2003) Gender Sensitive Educational Policy and Practice, Uganda CaseStudy prepared for the International Bureau of Education, Makerere University Department of Sociology
Euzobia Baine (2006), Gender and Teacher Education in Uganda: The Missing ‘Building Block’ in reducing gender disparities in education– A Research Colloquium Education Development in the Common Wealth
Ministry of Education and Sports and Sports (2006), 13th Annual Sector Review Report
Uganda Debt Network (June 2007)Is Uganda able to fund Universal Secondary Education. Policy review newsletter, volume 7, issue 6.
The Republic of Government of Uganda (1992) The Uganda White Paper for integration and governance, Kampala
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2002), Oxford University Press
Uganda Bureau of Statistics (2007),Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (2006)